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C.G. Embree, B.H. Lesser, and A.D. Crowe

The 30 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstock candidates selected for cold hardiness, known as the Kentville Stock Clone (KSC), with `McIntosh' and `Delicious' as scion cultivars, were compared at 11 years of age for tree size, weight, fruit yield, and crop efficiency under field conditions. Trunk cross-section area and tree weight were highly correlated. Tree size was similar for the two cultivars in most cases and ranged in size from semidwarf to very vigorous. Cumulative yield efficiencies varied by nearly two-fold and were not correlated with tree size. The most efficient rootstocks were KSC 28, KSC 7, and KSC 6 in the semidwarf, semivigorous, and vigorous size classifications, respectively.

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Yiannis G. Ampatzidis and Matthew D. Whiting

its singular importance in fruit production budgets, harvest efficiency is not well studied. Prototype mechanical and robotic systems have been tested for fruit trees to improve harvest efficiency ( Brown, 2005 ; Burks et al., 2005 ; Li et al., 2011

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Stefania De Pascale, Luisa Dalla Costa, Simona Vallone, Giancarlo Barbieri, and Albino Maggio

strategies to improve irrigation efficiency in vegetable crop production. We refer to recently published literature for in-depth analyses on the physiology and molecular biology of WUE ( Hsiao et al., 2007 ; Yoo et al., 2009 ). Efficiency in the context of

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Isaac Zipori, Arnon Dag, Yizhar Tugendhaft, and Reuven Birger

. Green table olives are harvested before the fruit reaches physiological maturity and therefore the force required to detach the fruit from the tree is high ( Burns et al., 2008 ; Ferguson et al., 2005 ). This usually leads to low harvesting efficiency

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Dong Sik Yang, Svoboda V. Pennisi, Ki-Cheol Son, and Stanley J. Kays

; Orwell et al., 2006 ; Wood et al., 2002 ; Yoo et al., 2006 ). The efficiency of VOC removal varies substantially among species ( Yoo et al., 2006 ) and with the molecular characteristics of each compound. To date, only a limited number of indoor species

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Jeb S. Fields, William C. Fonteno, and Brian E. Jackson

efficiency ( Beardsell and Nichols, 1982 ). There are several factors that can influence a substrate’s wettability, including, but not limited to, MC ( de Jonge et al., 1999 ; Michel et al., 2001 ), substrate pH ( Gautam and Ashwath, 2012 ), hydrophobicity

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Kwang Jin Kim, Myeong Il Jeong, Dong Woo Lee, Jeong Seob Song, Hyoung Deug Kim, Eun Ha Yoo, Sun Jin Jeong, Seung Won Han, Stanley J. Kays, Young-Wook Lim, and Ho-Hyun Kim

in the phloem to various organs (e.g., seed, roots) ( Hanson and Roje, 2001 ). Assessing indoor plants for phytoremediation efficiency involves comparing the purification capacity among species under standard conditions. Comparing a cross-section of

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C. Michael Bourget

commonly cited LED advantages are efficiency and lifetime. The newest high-power LEDs are more efficient (radiated power output divided by electrical power input) than incandescent and fluorescent lamps and are roughly equivalent to high-intensity discharge

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David H. Suchoff, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Frank J. Louws, and Christopher C. Gunter

yields while reducing overall water inputs ( Pennisi, 2008 ). Numerous cultural practices and breeding efforts have been aimed at improving water use efficiency. Practices that direct irrigation water to the plant roots, such as subsurface drip, or that

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Giuseppe Colla, Carolina María Cardona Suárez, Mariateresa Cardarelli, and Youssef Rouphael

needed for optimum plant growth while minimizing the NO 3 – that is transported to ground and surface waters remains a major challenge for everyone attempting to understand and improve agricultural nutrient use efficiency ( Dinnes et al., 2002