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, or on a national basis ( Haydu et al., 2006 ). However, no studies have provided potential economic and social impacts of improving turfgrass on regional markets. Our study estimates the potential economic impact of the improved varieties on the

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management strategies proposed in the literature with an emphasis on their effects on crop yield, costs, and benefits. Second, to assess the economic impact of the major proposed treatments to cope with the disease and analyze their cost-effectiveness. In the

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encompassing all these relatively disparate groups, the authors conducted a national economic impact study of the “Green Industry” ( Hall et al., 2005 ). Using the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), three major industry groups were

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and hop production. In this study, we estimate the economic benefits of using CPS for hop production versus the potential economic impacts of HSVd on hop farmers in the PNW for both aroma and alpha hop varieties. Using a net present value (NPV

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. Brooks, personal communication). About 85% of the crop is sold outside of the state; hence, the industry brings in a substantial amount of “new dollars” to the state, resulting in an overall economic impact of about $54 million/year (authors' calculation

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developed strawberry enterprise production budgets to compare production costs and revenues for each system to assess their economic viability. Finally, we used a set of environmental indicators to compare the environmental and human health impacts of each

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impact of potential deviations from assumed scenarios on economic returns of grafted systems. In addition, a formula is derived to calculate breakeven marketable yields in grafted systems. The proposed approach is demonstrated based on real-life data for

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fastest-growing sectors of U.S. agriculture and is inherently labor intensive ( Regelbrugge, 2007 ) with greater than 40% of production costs consisting of labor costs ( Mathers et al., 2010 ). Hodges et al. (2011) estimated the total economic impact of

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186 WORKSHOP 21 (Abstr. 438–439) Economic Impacts on Changing Markets Due to Public Perceptions: Floriculture, Turfgrass, Landscape, and the Wine Industry

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The United States environmental horticulture industry, also known as the Green Industry, is comprised of wholesale nursery and sod growers; landscape architects, designers/builders, contractors, and maintenance firms; retail garden centers, home centers, and mass merchandisers with lawn and garden departments; and marketing intermediaries such as brokers and horticultural distribution centers (re-wholesalers). Environmental horticulture is one of the fastest growing segments of the nation's agricultural economy. In spite of the magnitude and recent growth in the Green Industry, there is surprisingly little information regarding its economic impact. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the economic impacts of the Green Industry at the national level. Economic impacts for the U.S. Green Industry in 2002 were estimated at $147.8 billion in output, 1,964,339 jobs, $95.1 billion in value added, $64.3 billion in labor income, and $6.9 billion in indirect business taxes, with these values expressed in 2004 dollars. In addition, this study evaluated the value and role of urban forest trees (woody ornamental trees); the total output of tree production and care services was valued at $14.55 billion, which translated into $21.02 billion in total output impacts, 259,224 jobs, and $14.12 billion in value added.

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