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community composition. In terms of the bacterial ecology, the results for the phyla and class level ( Fig. 1 ) indicated that Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum and class identified. When considering the class level of taxonomy (of which certain

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Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Ecology of Bark-inhabiting and Tree-pathogenic Fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae. M. Gryzenhout, B.D. Wingfield, and M.J. Wingfield. 2009. APS Press, St. Paul, MN 55121. 136 pages, 14 color images, 38 black and white images

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population biology and ecology of clonal plants. Semiautonomous young ramets may import nutrients, water, hormones, etc., from the parent until they are established, and thereafter they may be independent of parental support ( Pitelka and Ashmun, 1985 ). In

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. 23 453 479 Mazzola, M. Manici, L.M. 2012 Apple replant disease: Role of microbial ecology in cause and control Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 50 45 65 McSorley, R. 2011 Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case

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Little is known about the reproductive biology of carolina buckthorn [Rhamnus caroliniana Walt. or Frangula caroliniana (Walt.) Gray], an attractive North American shrub or small tree that might merit increased use in managed landscapes. The fecundity and high germinability of seeds of the Eurasian common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.), however, have been characterized as factors contributing to its invasiveness. We compared seed germination of these species to ascertain how easily carolina buckthorn could be grown from seed in nurseries and to acquire data for predicting whether carolina buckthorn might be invasive if introduced into managed landscapes. Fruits of carolina buckthorn were collected from indigenous plants in central Missouri, southern Oklahoma, and southern Texas. Fruits of common buckthorn were collected from shrubs naturalized in central Iowa. Seeds of both species were stratified for up to 112 days in darkness at 4 °C; germination at 24 °C in the dark was then evaluated for 56 days. Quadratic functions best described how time of stratification influenced germination value and germination percentage of common buckthorn, whereas these measures of carolina buckthorn were best represented by exponential (value) or linear (percentage) functions. Stratification for 112 days maximized germination value and percentage for carolina buckthorn within the 56-day germination period, but shorter stratifications were sufficient to optimize germination of common buckthorn. While the overall mean germination of carolina buckthorn was 40%, results varied by provenance and ranged from 25% (Missouri) to 56% (Oklahoma). Mean germination of common buckthorn over times of stratification was 71%, and the overall mean daily germination of common buckthorn, 1.3, was 86% greater than that of carolina buckthorn, 0.7. We conclude that seeds of carolina buckthorn are more resistant to germination than seeds of common buckthorn. Our results suggest that plant propagators should cold-stratify seeds of carolina buckthorn for up to 112 days, and suggest that carolina buckthorn has a lower potential to be invasive than does common buckthorn.

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Carolina buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana Walt.) is ornamental and could be promoted as a stress-resistant shrub for horticultural landscapes. Its status as a relative of invasive species, including common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.), raises concerns regarding the environmental consequences of planting Carolina buckthorn outside of its natural habitat. To assess the ease of propagating Carolina buckthorn from seed, and to gather data relevant to assessments of invasiveness, we compared seed-germination characteristics between the two species. Seeds of Carolina buckthorn were collected from native populations in Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Seeds of common buckthorn were collected from populations in Iowa. We stratified seeds of both species for up to 112 days at 4 °C. Germination at 20 °C then was evaluated for 56 days. Over stratification durations, 40% and 71% of seeds of Carolina buckthorn and common buckthorn germinated, respectively. Stratification for 112 days optimized germination value for Carolina buckthorn, but stratification for 42, 56, 84, and 112 days evoked similar germination percentages. Seeds of Carolina buckthorn from Oklahoma germinated at a higher percentage (56%) than did seeds from Missouri (25%). Neither germination value nor germination percentage of common buckthorn was influenced by stratification. We conclude that seeds of Carolina buckthorn are more recalcitrant than are seeds of common buckthorn. This suggests that Carolina buckthorn, particularly those from Missouri with low reproductive success, may be less invasive than their Eurasian kin. Horticulturists can optimize germination percentage of Carolina buckthorn by cold-stratifying seeds for as little as 42 days, but 112 days optimizes germination value.

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Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] is indigenous to the Mississippi River drainage system of the United States. Climate in the native pecan region ranges from humid to semiarid and from mild to harsh winters. Rainfall is bimodal with peaks in March to April and in August to September. Pecan is site specific and is the climax tree species on loamy, well drained, first bottom river land with a relatively high water table. Detrimental effects from pecan's shade intolerance from its more vigorous, sympatric species are minimized as these species are specific to differ sites. Pecan's deep and phreatophytic rooting habit ensures soil moisture during drought periods and facilitates pecan's survival in semiarid regions. Root development in the humus-surface layer ensures nutrient uptake from the most nutrient rich layer of the soil and, when the lower soil profile is saturated, aeration for the roots and water and nutrient uptake. The bimodal rain pattern replenishes soil profile moisture and its timing ensures seed germination, stand establishment, well-developed seed, and minimal drought stress. Natural selection for freeze tolerance and for minimum fruit development time allows survival in areas with harsh winters and short growing seasons. Regulation of seed germination and budbreak by heating and chilling results in pecan being native in cold and warm climates, greatly increasing the native range. The northern limit for pecan is dictated by heat units; the southern limit is restricted by lack of bimodal rains and vivipary. Reproductive stress is caused by the high lipid content of seed, but is counteracted by a long juvenile growth period of the seedling, by a small nut size and low percentage kernel, and by “off” production years of the tree. Nut and percentage kernel decrease as the growing season decreases which contributes to species survival in geographical regions with a short growing season. Selection for small nuts with low percentage kernel is enhanced by predators. Tree reserves are depleted by heavy production during “on” years and are replenished during “off”years. Perpetuation of pecan forests is apparently from sib/half sib seedlings following predator satiation while dissemination into new areas may be mainly by predators. Pecan and its pests successfully co-exist. Major defense against fruit feeders is escape in time, leaf feeders by biological associations and accommodation, and leaf diseases by confrontation. Heterozygous progenies from cross-pollination provide ample genetic diversity for continuous pecan selection to endure pressures imposed throughout a wide climatic range. Ecological adaptions within native pecan forests should be used in developing and maintaining commercial pecan orchards.

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Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds. syn. A. stolonifera L.) coexist on golf greens as a dynamic ecosystem in the temperate regions of the United States. In a two year field study, the competitive ability of different populations of annual bluegrass was investigated both in and out of their native environment. In April 2000, at both The Country Club in Cleveland, Ohio, a temperate environment, and Camargo Club in Cincinnati, Ohio, a transition zone environment, 72 plugs of annual bluegrass were removed from golf greens and inserted into polyvinyl chloride pipe measuring 10.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in length to eliminate root competition between species. Thirty-six plugs then were reestablished into one of three greens at the same golf course, and the remaining 36 plugs were transported to the opposite location and also established into one of three preselected greens. Each plug was centered in a 20.3-cm-diameter sward of `L-93' creeping bentgrass to provide an initial point of reference. Competitive ability was measured as the rate of increase or decrease in average diameter of each plug. Measurements initially were taken on a bimonthly basis and then on a monthly basis for the remainder of the study. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in the location × population interaction were seen in the first 2 months of the study and then not seen again until the last 2 months. The most frequent occurrence of significant (P < 0.05) differences was in the variability between greens within a particular location. At each location the native population of annual bluegrass outperformed the imported population. Differences at the beginning of the study are attributed to an additional acclimation period required by the exported population following transportation to the opposite location. From our study, annual bluegrass performance was similar across populations, suggesting that management recommendations can be made on a regional basis.

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California has an extensive strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa L.) industry that has built its reputation on the production of large volumes of fruit that are evenly and fully developed. While some fruit deformity occurs every year, in various counties during the 1997-2000 seasons there were higher than usual numbers of uneven or “catfaced” strawberry fruit. It was thought that the presence of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) G.A. De Vries on flower anthers may have interfered with pollination and increased cull rates. We collected and incubated flower anthers to determine the fungal populations on such tissue and found that C. cladosporioides accounted for the majority of the culturable fungal colonies present. However, while 100% of a flower's anthers were colonized with C. cladosporioides after spray inoculations, the incidence and severity of malformed fruit were not significantly different from untreated flowers. Physically removing all anthers shortly after anthesis likewise did not result in significant differences in fruit quality when compared to untreated control flowers. We conclude that C. cladosporioides colonization of flower anthers has a minimal impact on fruit quality under most field conditions.

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