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Jennifer R. DeEll and Geoffrey B. Lum

.M. 2016 A novel type of dynamic controlled atmosphere storage based on the respiratory quotient (RQ-DCA) Postharvest Biol. Technol. 115 91 102 Blanpied, G.D. Silsby, K.J. 1992 Predicting harvest date windows for apples. Inform. Bul. 221. Cornell Coop. Ext

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James Mattheis and David R. Rudell

air-stored fruit in both years (controls in year two). Ethylene production was influenced by an atmosphere × 1-MCP interaction in year two at both 4 and 8 months. Discussion As ‘Honeycrisp’ loses little if any firmness during storage ( Tong et al

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J.P. Mattheis, D.A. Buchanan, and J.K. Fellman

Fruit quality and volatile compounds produced by apple fruit (Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Gala') were characterized following regular atmosphere (RA) or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 1°C. Static CA conditions were 1, 1.9, 2.8, or 3.7 kPa O2. Fruit stored under dynamic CA conditions were exposed to ambient air 1, 2, or 3 days per week for 8 hours then returned to 1 kPa O2. All CA treatments included 2 kPa CO2. Ethylene production was reduced following CA storage plus 1 day at 20°C compared with apples stored in RA. Apples stored in static 1 kPa O2 and the dynamic treatments had lower ethylene production compared with apples stored in 1.9 to 3.7 kPa O2 after 90 and 120 days. Ethylene production by apples from all CA treatments recovered during a 7-day poststorage ripening period at 20°C. Ester production was reduced following CA at 1 kPa O2 after 60 days compared with RA-stored fruit. Production of butyl acetate by apples stored in 1 kPa O2 static CA was 29%, 30%, and 7% of that produced by RA-stored fruit after 60, 90, and 120 days storage plus 7 days at 20°C. Amounts of 2-methylbutyl acetate were not affected by CA storage, however, production of other 2-methylbutyrate esters was reduced following 1 kPa O2 storage. Ester production increased with O2 concentration after 90 days in storage. The dynamic treatments resulted in greater ester emission after 120 days storage plus 7 days at 20°C compared with apples stored in static 1 kPa O2. Production of 1-methoxy-(2-propenyl) benzene by apples subjected to dynamic treatments was also higher after 120 days storage plus 7 days at 20°C compared with apples stored in RA or static CA. No differences in firmness, titratable acidity or soluble solids content were observed between apples stored in 1 kPa O2 and the dynamic treatments. Firmness and titratable acidity were maintained better by dynamic treatments compared with static atmospheres containing > 1 kPa O2.

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John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, Jerry C. Leyte, and Peter A. Harrison

HarvestWatch is a new chlorophyll fluorescence (F)-based technology that identifies the low-oxygen threshold for apple (Malus × domestica) fruit in dynamic low-O controlled atmosphere (DLOCA) storage environments [e.g., <1% oxygen (O2)]. Immediately following harvest, `Cortland', `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Honeycrisp', `Jonagold' and `McIntosh' fruit were cooled and loaded into 0.34 m3 (12.0 ft3) storage cabinets. A static controlled atmosphere (CA) regime of 1.5% O2, 1.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) and 3 °C (37.4 °F) [0 °C (32.0 °F) for `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious'] was established for the control fruit, while the low-O2 threshold was identified by a spike in the fluorescence parameter, Fα, as the O2 levels in the DLOCA cabinets were lowered below 1%. The DLOCA storages were then maintained at O2 levels of 0.1% to 0.2% above the threshold value for each cultivar, which returned Fα to prethreshold signatures. Quality measurements following 5 to 9 months of storage and a 7-day shelf life of 20 °C (68.0 °F), showed that the HarvestWatch fruit were generally firmer, had no incidence of superficial scald in `Cortland' and `Delicious' apples, and did not accumulate fermentative volatile compounds. The HarvestWatch system permits rapid, real-time measurements of the status of stored apple fruit in ultra low-O2 environments without the inconvenience of breaking the room's atmosphere. Our results indicate that HarvestWatch facilitates what may be the highest possible level of fruit quality retention in long-term, low-O2 apple storage without the use of scald-controlling or other chemicals before storage.

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Denys J. Charles, Amots Hetzroni, and James E. Simon

Recent developments in electronic odor-sensing technology has opened the opportunity for non-destructive, rapid, and objective assessment of food quality. We have developed an electronic sensor (electronic sniffer) that measures aromatic volatiles that are naturally emitted by fruits and fruit products. The ability of our sniffer to detect contamination in fruit juice was tested using tomato juice as a model system. Tomato juice was extracted from cultivar Rutgers and divided into eight glass jars of 300 g juice each. The jars were divided into two treatments: the control jars contained tomato juice mixed with 0.15% sorbic acid to suppress microbial growth, and the experimental jars contained only tomato juice. All the jars were placed open, on a counter top in the laboratory for 8 days. The juice was tested daily with the electronic sniffer and for pH. The total volatiles in the headspace of the juice was extracted on alternating days via dynamic headspace method using charcoal traps, analyzed by gas chromatography, and confirmed by GC/mass spectometry. The results indicate that the sniffer is able to detect differences between the two treatments 4 days after the tomato juice was exposed to ambient atmosphere. The electronic sniffer output for the control juice showed a monotonous decline, while the output for the experimental juice exhibited a sharp incline after day four. This sensor output correlated well with the total volatiles.

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J.P. Mattheis, D.A. Buchanan, and J.K. Fellman

Quantitative and qualitative changes in net production of volatile compounds by apples occurs during fruit development with a major transition to ester production occurring as fruit ripening begins. Ester production during fruit ripening is an ethylene-mediated response; however, differences in maturation patterns among apple cultivars led us to examine the relationship between ester production and onset of the ethylene climacteric in several commercial apple cultivars. Emission of volatile esters as a function of apple fruit development was evaluated for `Royal Gala', `Bisbee Delicious', `Granny Smith', and `Fuji' apple fruit during two harvest seasons. Apples were harvested weekly and analyses of harvest maturity were performed the day after harvest. Non-ethylene volatiles were collected from intact fruit using dynamic headspace sampling onto Tenax traps. Fruit from each harvest was stored at 1°C in air for 5 months (3 months for `Royal Gala') plus 7 days ripening at 20°C, then apples were evaluated for the development of disorders. The transition to ester production occurred after internal ethylene exceeded 0.1 μL for `Royal Gala', `Bisbee Delicious', and `Fuji'. Ester emission by `Granny Smith' apples remained low throughout the harvest period. Increased ester emission occurred after the optimum harvest date (as determined by the starch index and internal ethylene concentration) for controlled-atmosphere storage of `Bisbee Delicious' and prior to optimum maturity for `Royal Gala' and `Fuji'. A relationship between the potential for development of superficial scald and ester production at harvest was evident only for `Bisbee Delicious' apples.

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Oliver Körner, Jesper Mazanti Aaslyng, Andrea Utoft Andreassen, and Niels Holst

., 1994 ). In the early 1990s, a complete dynamic climate control concept was first developed ( Aaslyng et al., 2003 ) and constantly further developed since then. The system aims at optimizing the greenhouse microclimate to ensure maximum net dry matter

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M. Helena Gomes, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Domingos P.F. Almeida

and MA requirements and recommendations for fresh-cut (minimally processed) fruits and vegetables, p. 30–66. In: Gorny, J.R. (ed.). Proc. of 7 th Intl Controlled Atmosphere Res. Conf., Vol. 5. Davis, CA Hertog, M.L.A.T.M. Boerrigter, H.A.M. van den

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Juan Pablo Zoffoli, Valentina Sanguedolce, Paulina Naranjo, and Carolina Contreras

oxygen (ULO; 0.7 kPa O 2 ), a controlled atmosphere (CA) storage technology which reduces superficial scald ( Wang and Dilley, 2000 ) and its variants initial low oxygen (ILO) ( Wang and Dilley, 1999 ; Zanella, 2003 ) and dynamic atmosphere storage (DCA

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

-grown ‘Honeycrisp’ can tolerate pO 2 as low as 0.4 kPa, and treatment of fruit with dynamic low O 2 storage (0.5 to 0.8 kPa O 2 /1.5 kPa CO 2 ) compared with a 1.5 kPa O 2 /1.5 kPa CO 2 atmosphere resulted in similar fruit firmness ( DeLong et al., 2004 ). A 2