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Danise Coon, Derek W. Barchenger and Paul W. Bosland

ornamental pepper cultivars currently available need to be pinched or sprayed with a uniconazole foliar application to achieve a dwarf or semidwarf plant habit ( Starman, 1993 ). Dwarf and semidwarf plants are generally recognized as being smaller than normal

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou and Yuncong Yao

concentrations of GA, resulting in dwarf phenotypes for both monocot and dicot plants; in turn, GA applications promote growth elongation ( Lohr et al., 2014 ). In the GA signal pathway, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) acts as the GA receptor, can combine

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Taifeng Zhang, Jiajun Liu, Shi Liu, Zhuo Ding, Feishi Luan and Peng Gao

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, China was the largest melon producer and consumer, accounting for 50.04% of the total production worldwide in 2014 [as cited in Sun et al. (2017 )]. Compact or dwarf crops have great agricultural

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Patrick E. McCullough, Ted Whitwell, Lambert B. McCarty and Haibo Liu

only tolerate long-term mowing heights 4.8 mm or greater, which produce inferior playing surfaces compared with creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) greens ( Beard, 1973 ; Foy, 1991 ). Dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars are improved selections

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai and Zhihong Zhang

Apple is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Tree size is critical for early, high yielding, and efficient apple crops. Dwarf trees require reduced spray volumes, produce higher yields per unit of land through higher planting

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown and Peter J. Davies

Apple trees with small stature are desired for high-density planting and an early transition from juvenility to production ( Miller and Tworkoski, 2003 ). Compared with their standard counterparts, dwarf apple trees have better light penetration

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Caihong Wang, Yike Tian, Emily J. Buck, Susan E. Gardiner, Hongyi Dai and Yanli Jia

Pears are cultivated commercially in more than 50 temperate countries across the world. Their current mode of cultivation is one of intense fruit production, similar to that of apple. In the last century, many dwarfing apple rootstocks and dwarf

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S.L. Noffsinger, A.D. Draper and C.L. Gupton

Although southern highbush (Vaccinium sp.) is replacing rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei L.) blueberry, rabbiteye will continue to be grown on marginal soils of the southeastern United States. Dwarfism or short, compact growth habit is a trait that could be used to reduce labor costs in rabbiteye blueberry production. Parental backgrounds, and flowering and fruit traits were studied in seven Mississippi (MS) and five Georgia (T) selections. Six of the MS selections are available for propagation and bloom late enough that cold damage should not be a problem. Four (MS63, MS454, MS546, MS891) of the six have acceptable fruit quality and will be used in breeding. Ethel and MS134 were the only known dwarf ancestors, with Ethel, Myers, Black Giant, and Tifblue (Ethel × Clara) dominating the parental background. Based on the variation in growth habit and ancestries, it would appear that Ethel has several genes for dwarfism and multiple allelic interactions are involved, similar to what Garvey and Lyrene found (1987). Future breeding will include crosses of MS63, MS454, MS546, and MS891 with germplasm outside of the common ancestors, to broaden the genetic base of the dwarf rabbiteyes.

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Wanmei Jin, Qiang Zhang, Sunzhong Liu, Qinping Wei, Wanmei Jin, Zongming Cheng, Xiaohui Xue and Tingzhen Yang

Apple ( Malus × domestica ) is one of the major economically important fruit tree species in the world. The past 20 years saw rapid development of intensive and efficient cultivation technology in dwarf rootstocks in Europe, North America

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R.L. Rusholme Pilcher, J-M. Celton, S.E. Gardiner and D.S. Tustin

are capable of fruiting earlier and producing greater yields are required. Dwarfing rootstocks that dramatically reduce the size of the grafted scion and that have also been reported to induce a higher proportion of buds to flower ( Atkinson and Else