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glyphosate-resistant soybean acres in the state continue to rise ( Fig. 1 ). Similarly, there are 385,000 acres of dry edible pea, 655,000 acres of dry edible bean, and 82,000 acres of potato production, respectively, with a total production value at nearly

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The effects of planting date and plant density on total and marketable yield were examined for the edible dry beans `Aurora' and `Fleetwood', erect type I geneotype cultivars, over three years. For `Fleetwood' alone, fertilizer levels and application of a spray-on-soil polymer mulching material were examined for effects on yield. The mulching material was degraded by rain prior to canopy closure but patches were present at harvest. Using continous recording thermometers, temperatures over two week periods following sowing of `Fleetwood', from 23 cm below the surface of mulched and bare soil were converted to soil degree days (SDD). `Fleetwood' generally had higher yields than `Aurora'. Earlier planting improved yields. In one of three years increasing plant density increased yields. Increased fertilization did not affect yield. Application of mulch did not affect yield. However, spray-on-mulch did increase SDD after the earliest planting date. Cultural systems for existing production, or potential production areas, must be developed for the conditions of each location.

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Abstract

A computer system consisting of several programs and files, developed for management of information generated in all phases of a dry, edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding program, is described. The interactive system both produces field books and prints labels for field stakes and planting and harvesting bags.

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Abstract

The accessions, PI 255960 (P1) (purple flowers, colored seed, curved pod tip, large seed) and G-19007 (P2) (white flowers, straight pod tip, white seed) of Phaseolus vulgaris L., both late maturing with many ovules and seeds per pod, were crossed with each other and with 2 early maturing, white flowered, white seeded, straight pod tip, low ovule number/pod parents, ‘Great Northern (GN) Emerson’ (P3) and ‘GN UI#59’ (P4). P1 and P2 appeared to possess the same genes for high ovule number/pod. The continuous distributions of ovule number/pod, seed number/pod, and seed weight in the F2 generations of the other crosses indicated quantitative inheritance. However, segregation data in their F3 generations suggested that ovule number/pod may be determined by additive action of the alleles of a single major gene. Moderately high broad sense heritability estimates were obtained for these traits. Purple flower color and seed-coat color were controlled by 2 different complementary dominant genes. Striped pod color and curved pod tip shape (Ct) were each controlled by different single dominant genes. Days to flowering was controlled by a single completely dominant gene; pod maturity was controlled by a single incompletely dominant gene for lateness. Linkage occurred between genes for flower color and pod color pattern, flower color and pod tip shape, and flower color and maturity. High seed number/pod was associated with purple flowers, colored seeds, and late maturity in the F2 of P3 × P1. Late maturity and high seed number/pod were also associated in the F2 of P4×P1, P3× P2 and P4 × P2. Moderately large negative correlations were found between number of seeds/pod and seed weight in all crosses involving P1 and P2. High ovule number/pod was associated with indeterminate growth habit and moderately late flowering in the F2 progeny from the indeterminate cultivar ‘G.N. Nebr. # 1’, crossed with a determinate isoline. No association between seed weight & seed-coat color was observed in the F2 of P3 × P1, and P4 × P1, but there was association between large seed and both late maturity and flower color.

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Two field experiments were conducted to explore possible causes of inefficient selection for architectural avoidance of white mold disease reported in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Near-isogenic breeding lines for maturity and plant growth habit were blended in 4 paired combinations (with 5 mixture levels/blend) to investigate their intrarow competitive influence on disease severity. Results from regressing the disease severity for each blend component on the mixture level showed the disease severity of an individual plant to be dependent upon its own maturity, as well as on the maturity of its neighbors. An increase in the proportion of late plants in the blend led to a significant and linear increase in their disease severity. A comparable decrease in disease severity was observed as the proportion of early plants in the blend was increased. Disease severity was not influenced by the proportion of indeterminate or determinate plants in the blend, regardless of maturity. The determinate growth habit, however, as well as early maturity, resulted in greater disease avoidance than the indeterminate growth habit or late maturity when grown in pure stands. In a 2nd experiment, 4 dry bean cultivars possessing different architectures were used to study the interrow influence of plant architecture on disease severity, incidence, and seed yield. Significant differences in disease severity and incidence observed between plots bordered by an upright genotype or a dense, prostrate genotype indicated that the level of disease in the test row was determined to a large extent by the architecture of adjacent rows. The failure to obtain an accurate assessment of a genotype's performance may account partially for the difficulty in selecting for architectural avoidance.

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Abstract

The yields and physico-chemical seed traits related to food quality of 25 strains of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) representative of the Black Turtle Soup commercial class were evaluated for 3 seasons. The strains differed significantly over seasons for washed drained weight, textural properties, and surface color characteristics of cooked seeds. All the other traits were nonsignificant in the combined analysis. Trait expression was strongly influenced by genotype × season interactions. Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation between pairs of years indicated that the interactions were due primarily to inconsistent strain rankings from year-to-year. The season and genotype × season variance component estimates for yield, soaking, and several cooked bean traits were larger than the genotypic component, indicating that seasonal effects predominated over genotypic effects. These results suggested that several years of testing are needed to assess strain performance accurately for food quality. The contribution made by each strain to the genotype × season variance component was ascertained by calculating a “stability variance” statistic. Based on this statistic, strains were found to differ in their genetic potential to respond to varying environments. Several genotypes were phenotypically stable for most traits. Strain no. 23 (CIAT pedigree FF 4-13-M-M-M-M), which had good yield (2.8 MT/ha) and protein percentage (27.7%) and favorable culinary quality, was of particular interest.

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Abstract

Bowen (1988) reported that the first large scale production of dry edible beans in the United States started in Orleans County, N.Y., in 1839. Later, the crop spread to many other areas in the midwestern Great Lake states and finally to many western states as the country developed. The United States became one of the most productive and efficient producers of dry beans in the world in this century. The following states, in ranked order, had the most area planted to the dry bean crop in 1986: Michigan, North Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, California, and Idaho (Table 1). Average yields in the United States reached 1509 kg-ha-1, while yields in Brazil and Mexico, which produce 78% of South America’s dry beans, were 500 and 578 kg·ha-1, respectively, during 1977–1979 (CIAT, 1981). Brazil is the largest producer of dry beans in the world (2,222,0001) (CIAT, 1981), while the United States produced ≍968,000 (5-year average, 1982 to 1986) (Table 2). The differences in yields between the two regions is that, in South America, beans are generally produced on small farms on infertile soils with limited inputs and using landraces in association with other crops (CIAT, 1981). Beans in the United States are generally grown in monoculture on large farms on fertile soils using productive cultivars and generally under high management inputs.

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Dry edible beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) represent an inexpensive way to incorporate protein into the diet as a food ingredient, but beans contain unpleasant flavors and several anti-nutritional factors that limit their use without first processing with long heat treatments. `Great Northern' bean flour was processed using either static or specially designed dynamic (continuous) processing methods. The dynamic process treated flour slurries at temperatures up to 124°for 20 sec. The slurries were quick-frozen and freeze-dried after frozen storage periods of 0, 8, 24, 120, or 504 hr. The flours were analyzed for sensory properties, emulsifying activity, foaming properties, and trypsin inhibition. The heat treatments improved sensory attributes of the flour. The foam capacity and foam stability decreased in heat-treated flours. Trypsin inhibitor activity was at a minimum level immediately following thermal processing, but increased with time in frozen storage prior to drying. Minimal thermal processes cannot be relied upon to inactivate trypsin inhibitors.

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Amendment of soil with microorganisms during the growth cycle of one crop may affect development of succeeding crops. Species of Rhizobium bacteria or abuscular-mycorrhizal fungi were added alone to, or in combination with, potting soil in pots in a greenhouse. Controls were no amendments. Seed of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were planted and two levels of a combination NPK fertilizer, the recommended and one-fourth the recommended rate, were applied. After harvest of peanut and remoistening of soil, seed of the bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) or navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were sown into the same planting medium in pots without additional inoculation with microbes. Dry weights of above-ground vegetative and edible portions of crops were determined. Inoculum type only affected peanut top and total dry weights. The recommended fertilizer level did not affect peanut yield but did cause improvement in bell pepper and navy bean yield over that of the deficient fertilizer rate. In field experiments, peanut was planted into soil receiving Rhizobium spp. bacteria, or arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi alone or in combination. Controls consisted of no amendment. Only the recommended fertilizer rate was used. In the next 2 years, bell pepper or navy bean were established in plots without use of additional microbial amendment. Yields and nutrient contents of crops were determined. Type of inoculum did not affect yield or nutrient content in any crop. Bell pepper marketable yield was unaffected by year, and navy bean seed yield was higher in 2004 than in 2005. In both years, navy bean yields were below U.S. averages. Concentrations of most nutrients in edible portions of bell pepper and navy bean were lower in 2004 than in 2005. Results of the field trials were generally similar to those of greenhouse studies. Use of inocula did not provide substantial benefits to yield or nutrient content of peanut or vegetable crops that followed.

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Severity of rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) and yield of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were recorded for 9 years in west-central Nebraska in fungicidal efficacy trials. A weighted analysis of covariance was used to estimate yield loss due to rust. The model fit the data well (R2 =0.94), and the slope over all years had a 19 kg.ha−1 decrease in yield for each 1% increase in severity of rust. Yield response within years occurred only through reduction of rust for most fungicide treatments.

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