In plants, especially ornamentals, flower color is a very important ornamental trait ( Han et al., 2022 ). Among the many flower colors, most of them are monochromatic color in the plant world, but a few are double-color. The definition of double
( Koutinas et al., 2010 ). Over the past few decades, great attention has been paid to the study of peony flower types, which can be classified into six types, including single, Japanese, anemone, semidouble, bomb, and double types, in Western countries
In ornamental plants, flower architecture is an important feature and double-flowered varieties are particularly highly valued by the horticultural industry ( Scovel et al., 1998 ). Double-flowered varieties have been characterized anatomically and
A double-flower form of Nicotiana alata Link & Otto was characterized genetically as a monogenic recessive trait expressed when homozygous. Reciprocal crosses demonstrated no maternal effect on expression of double flowers. A single dominant gene expressed in the homozygous or heterozygous state caused the single-flower phenotype. The symbol fw is proposed to describe the gene controlling double-flower phenotype.
A naturally occurring mutant of Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer (Geraldton wax) is described. It has double flowers with the staminodes transformed into petals. Pollen is exuded from the anthers but is not deposited on the pollen presenter in a lipid droplet, which is normal for the species. An anomalous secondary flower with petals, stamens, and gynoecium is present in the ovary.
Anatomical analysis was performed using a double-flowered mutant of Nicotiana alata Link & Otto. Flower doubleness resulted from petaloid modification of the androecium. Vascularized petal-like outgrowths arose from the anther, connective, and filament of the stamen. The vasculature in petaloid outgrowths from the anther and upper part of the filament originated from and was continuous with the vascular bundle of the filament. In contrast, the vascular bundles formed in the outgrowths from the lower part of the filament developed independently of the vascular bundle of the filament and were not connected to it at any time. Emergences consisting of epidermal and ground parenchyma tissue and lacking vascularization arose from the filament.
Genetic analysis of a white double-flowering Nicotiana alata is being investigated. Self-pollination of the double-flowering plant produced all double progeny. Reciprocal hybridization of the double-flowered selection with N. alata cultivars produced nondouble F1 progeny that segregated 3:1 (nondouble to double) in the F2 generation. Reciprocal backcrosses of F1 plants to the parents resulted in nondouble progeny when backcrossed to the nondouble parent and 1:1 segregation when backcrossed to the double parent. Intercross of F1 plants resulted in progeny segregating 3:1. Double flowering habit has been transferred to white, red, salmon, green, and bicolor N. alata. Results suggest double flowering is under nuclear control regulated by a recessive allele.
The increase in the capitula of zinnia plants (Zinnia violacea Cav.) was investigated by analyzing the production of shoots. The effects of removing the buds for capitula and application of BA on the production of shoots were also evaluated. It took ≈40 to 50 days from the emergence of axillary buds to the opening of the capitula at the apices of the shoots from these axillary buds. The application of BA shortened the number of days for the same process. The difference in the number of days from emergence of the axillary buds to that of the first descendant axillary buds was ≈25. The total number of capitula opened was greater in plants with the bud removal treatment than in intact plants. Chemical name used: (N-phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).
qA 3-year study was undertaken to quantify the effect of four greenhouse covering materials on energy consumption, microclimate, and the growth and production of cut flowers Matthiola incana (Stocks) and Antirrhinum majalis (Snapdragons) in the greenhouse. The four materials are single glass (GL), polyethylene (PE) + anti-fog 1-year polyethylene (AF1), polyethylene + antifog 3-year polyethylene (AF3), and polyethylene + anti-fog thermal polyethylene (AFT). The effect of thermal screen and supplementary lighting (60 μmol·m–2·s–1) also are discussed. This study indicated that AFT film is the most energy efficient material and AF3 film is the most transparent to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). For stocks, good quality can be obtained in GL and AF3 in terms of spike length, stem diameter, as well as number of buds and flowers. The stocks in GL, however, always possess the highest photosynthetic capacity, regardless light treatment. For snapdragons, the growth and flowering in PE houses were significantly improved by supplementary lighting
, and that doubleflower is dominant over single flowers. The double-flowered heterozygote occasionally has markedly fewer petals than the double-flowered homozygote of gloxinia ( Clayberg, 1975 ; Shalit, 2000 ). Double-flowered gloxinia cultivars with