Postharvest Pathogens and Disease Management . 2005. P. Narayanasamy. John Wiley, Somerset, NJ. 578 pages. $135.00. Hardcover. ISBN: 978-0-471-74303-3 Postharvest diseases are responsible for the spoilage of durable and fresh perishable
Joseph L. Smilanick
Kent E. Cushman, William B. Evans, David M. Ingram, Patrick D. Gerard, R. Allen Straw, Craig H. Canaday, Jim E. Wyatt, and Michael M. Kenty
integrated pest management models that forecast environmental conditions conducive to growth and infection by one or more pathogens. Models have been developed to forecast weather conditions favorable for disease occurrence such as TOM-CAST for tomato early
Arthur S. Greathead
The use of disease-free greenhouse-grown plug transplants for the establishment of field plantings of many vegetable crops in the arid west and southwestern regions of the United States has become a very important part of the agricultural system in these areas. The development of effective disease-control programs for use in the greenhouse involves a broad knowledge of production systems, water management, growing media, cultural techniques, etc., as well as knowledge of the discipline of plant pathology. The consultant in this field also must know the people and organizations with whom he is working. His goal is not simply the passing on of technical information, but also assisting in the incorporation of that information into the total growing program. Good communication skills and the development of an atmosphere of trust between all parties concerned are a vital part of the consultant's work.
Hector Valenzuela, Robin Shimabuku, and John Cho
Pink root (Phomaterrestris) is among the major limiting factors for the production of sweet onions on Maui, Hawaii. Few management options exist for the control of pink root in onions. Two split-plot experiments were conducted in the area of Kula, Maui, over 2 years to evaluate several alternative management practices. In Expt. 1, the main plots were a rotation with cabbage, solarization with a clear plastic mulch, and a fallow period. Subplots were plus or minus Vapam fumigation. Sub-subplots were biomass application of Sudex or rape, inoculation with an EM biostimulant, and control. Each treatment had four replications for a total of 96 plots. In the follow-up experiment, the main plots were Vapam fumigation, rotation with either a Sudex or rape cover crop, and controls. The subplots were plus or minus EM biostimulant application. In Expt. 1, three separate treatments: solarization, cabbage rotation, and Sudex incorporation had a synergistic effect with Vapam fumigation. Fumigation and solarization also decreased pink root incidence. Rape contributed to a decreased disease incidence while EM contributed to increased bulb size. In Expt. 2, EM and rape contributed to increased yields. Rape and sorghum rotations contributed to decreased pink root incidence. EM inoculation had differential effects on several diseases, contributing to reduced bacterial bulb rot levels. The data indicate that growers may have several alternative management tools at their disposal, in addition to proper varietal selection, to improve yields and reduce disease incidence in sweet onions.
A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivar, seeding rate, N fertilization rate, and cutting height on the severity of dollar spot (Lanzia and Moellerodiscus spp.) disease incidence. All possible two-factor interactions among these four management factors were statistically significant when averaged over the 2 years of study. Disease severity tended to be lowest at low fescue seeding rate (2100 pure-live seeds/m*) at the lower (19 mm) height of cut. `Mustang', the turf-type cultivar with improved density, was more susceptible to dollar spot than `Kentucky-31', the common-type cultivar.
Harry Bottenberg, John Masiunas, Catherine Eastman, and Darin Eastburn
provided by Don Elliott, Jim Poppe, Doyle Dazey, and Kyle Krapf. We thank Asgrow Seed Company for donating the snapbean seed. Funding was provided by the Pesticide Impact Assessment and the Integrated Pest Management Programs, North Central Region.
Dermot P. Coyne, Eladio Arnaud Santana, James Beaver, James R. Steadman, Graciela Godoy Lutz, Douglas Maxwell, and Lisa Sutton
102 POSTER SESSION 4G (Abstr. 234–247) Disease Control–Cross-commodity
Brad Geary, Corey Ransom, Brad Brown, Dennis Atkinson, and Saad Hafez
the management of Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi on tomato under greenhouse conditions Nematropica 29 171 177 Hartz, T.K. Bogle, C.R. Bender, D.A. Avila, F.A. 1989 Control of pink root disease in onion using solarization and
Iva Suzanne Wilson, George Ray McEachern, and J Dan Hanna
Canopy management experiments of hedging and/or leaf pruning, were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to examine their effect on yield, quality and disease control of `Chenin Blanc ' grapes in Southeast Texas. Vines hedged and/or leaf pruned in May reduced bunch rot. In 1988 all three treatments had a significant lower juice pH at harvest than the control. The combination treatment also had a higher yield.
Annette Wszelaki, Sally Miller, Douglas Doohan, Karen Amisi, Brian McSpadden-Gardener, and Matthew Kleinhenz
The influence of organic soil amendments (unamended control, composted dairy manure, or raw dairy manure) and weed treatments [critical period (CP) or no seed threshold (NST)] on diseases, growth parameters, yield, and postharvest quality was evaluated over 3 years in a transitional organic crop rotation of tomato, cabbage, clover, and wheat. More growth, yield, and postharvest quality parameters were affected by amendment treatments in cabbage than in tomato. Significant differences in yield among amendment treatments were found in 2001 and 2003 in cabbage, with higher marketable and total yields in amended vs. control plots. Soil management effects on cabbage varied annually, though amendments were required to maximize crop growth, as head weight, size, and volume and core volume of treatment plots exceeded the control plots in 2002 and 2003. Few differences were found between weed treatments, although in 2001 cabbage heads from the NST treatment were larger than heads from the CP treatment. Similar results were found in tomato in 2003. Also, the CP treatment had a higher Area Under the Disease Progress Curve than the NST treatment in tomato in 2003. Overall, disease pressure was highest in tomato in 2001. But disease levels within years were mostly unaffected by amendment treatments. In cabbage, disease was more common in 2002 than in 2003, although head rot was more prevalent in compost-amended plots in 2003 than in manure-amended or control plots. Tomato postharvest quality parameters were similar among amendment and weed treatments within each year. Soil amendment may enhance crop yield and quality in a transitional-organic system. Also, weed management strategy can alter weed populations and perhaps disease levels.