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an additional 150 lb/acre N for dry bulb production ( Boyhan et al., 2001a ). The total N requirement of 280 lb/acre is the highest for any vegetable in Georgia, which might be reduced with direct-seeded onions ( Kissel, 2003 ). Furthermore, the Texas

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The majority of Vidalia onions are produced as a transplanted crop. Seeding in high density plantings in September is followed 8 to 10 weeks later by transplanting to final spacing. This practice is labor intensive and expensive. Direct seeding would save on labor, cost, and time. Traditionally, transplanting has been done because of better winter survival, more uniform stands, and better irrigation management during seedling emergence. Beginning 5 years ago, we began evaluating direct seeding onions. Initially, seedstems (bolting) and lack of uniform stand establishment were the main problems. Sowing in September resulted in almost 100% seedstems and using a belt planter with raw seed resulted in poor singulation for uniform stand establishment. Mid-October ultimately proved to be the best time for sowing Vidalia onion seed. Earlier sowing resulted in more seedstems and later planting did not give the plants sufficient time to grow resulting in later stand loss during cold winter temperatures. Using polymer coated seed and a precision vacuum planter resulted in uniform, even stand establishment. Fertilizer requirements are almost half with direct seeded onions compared to transplanted onions with a reduction in the need for fungicides and herbicides. We have established direct seeded onions both with drip irrigation and overhead irrigation. There was concern that center-pivot irrigation would not be able to sufficiently irrigate fields during seedling establishment with the frequent hot fall days we experience. Since this work was initiated several growers have successfully produced direct seeded onions under center-pivot systems. Direct seeding Vidalia onions requires attention to detail because there is only one opportunity to get it right. Timing is also critical particularly with planting date and herbicide application.

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. Basil is grown primarily from transplants ( Nurzyńska-Wierdak, 2002 ), but the crop can be established by direct seeding ( Davis, 1997 ; Simon, 1995 ). Producers are interested in direct seeding for basil stand establishment as a possible method to

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Direct seeding of hydroponically grown tomatoes ( Solanum lycorpersicum ) is not a common practice in South Africa, and most growers use transplants. Seedlings for hydroponic production of fresh market tomatoes are commonly transplanted at 6 to 7

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.7%) broadleaf weed control through the first 46 d after planting (DAP) ( Webber et al., 2007a ), without reductions in yields from crop injury ( Webber et al., 2007b ). The impact of CGM applications on the plant safety of direct-seeded crops has been

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as a result of their small stature, shallow root system, and thin canopy ( Yu et al., 2018 ). The critical weed-free period for direct-seeded cole crops is typically 2 to 4 weeks ( Miller and Hopen, 1991 ). Inefficient weed management during the early

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, 2007 ). It is not known how development (vine growth and root structure) and yield are affected by today's practices compared with direct seeding on nonfumigated bare ground. Although one study of triploid watermelon root systems found no aberrant

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Abstract

Seed treatments and soil covers were used to assess stand establishment and uniformity of direct-seeded cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) under high and low soil temperatures. Generally, primed seeds did not result in increased or more uniform seedling emergence compared to untreated seeds. Germinated seeds sown with a magnesium silicate gel (Laponite) or a starch-acrylamide-acrylate polymer gel (Liquagel) resulted in incomplete stands under heat stress, and stands for all plantings were generally lower when cabbage seeds were sown in a gel than when sown without a gel. Peat-vermiculite (Plug-mix) and calcined clay (GrowSorb) seed covers improved stands regardless of seed treatment when average soil temperatures were ≥30°C. Under normal (25°) to cooler soil conditions stands were not improved by seed treatment or seed cover.

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Abstract

A dominant tap root was apparent in nearly all direct-seeded watermelon plants, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf., but was lacking in those that had been transplanted. Transplants were characterized by a shallow, extensive root system and superior yield in contrast to direct-seeded plants.

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Transplanting generally results in more rapid stand establishment than direct seeding for cucurbit crops. A 2-year field study was conducted to examine the pattern of rooting of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nak.] following usage of different planting methods, and to determine subsequent effects on crop yield. Root length was assessed by obtaining soil cores three times per growing season to a depth of 75 cm. Transplanted watermelons generally had greater root length density in the upper 30 cm of soil 4 to 7 weeks after planting (WAP). However, by 11 to 12 WAP root distribution was similar over the entire 75 cm soil profile for the two planting methods. Total marketable yields were comparable for direct seeded and transplanted watermelons during 1995, but transplanted watermelon yield exceeded direct seeded yield by 40% in 1996. In both years, 90% to 100% of the marketable yield of transplanted watermelons was obtained at the first harvest, compared to 0% to 55% for direct seeded watermelons. These findings suggest that rapid root proliferation of transplanted watermelons may be an important factor in their earlier establishment and increased early yields as compared to direct seeded watermelons.

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