As part of a strawberry (Fragaria sp.) genome mapping project, we studied the linkage relationship between runnering and phosphoglucoisomerase PGI-2 allozymes in diploid strawberry. The respective r and Pgi-2 loci were found linked with a recombination frequency of 18.1% ± 1.6%(a map distance of 18.9 ± 1.6 cM). This is the second reported linkage in strawberry. The linkage between runnering and phosphoglucoisomerase allozymes, if conserved at the octoploid level, might provide a means of marker-assisted selection for the nonrunnering and bushy branching growth habits in cultivated strawberry. Severe distortion of monogenic segregation ratios was observed for runnering and PGI-2, and also for an unlinked locus for shikimate dehydrogenase allozymes. Alleles from the perpetual flowering (alpine F. vesca) parents were favored in this distortion. This phenomenon should be considered in future genetic studies using crosses between alpine and nonalpine strawberries.
The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier, originated via hybridization between octoploids F. chiloensis (L.) Mill. and F. virginiana Mill. These three octoploid species are thought to share a putative genome composition of AAA`A'BBB`B'. Diploid F. vesca L., is considered to have donated the A genome. Current attention to the development of a diploid model system for strawberry genomics warrants the assessment of simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker transferability between the octoploid and diploid species in Fragaria L. In the present study, 23 SSR primer pairs derived from F. ×ananassa `Earliglow' by genomic library screening were evaluated for their utility in six diploid Fragaria species, including eight representatives of F. vesca, four of F. viridis Weston, and one each of F. nubicola (Hook. f.) Lindl. ex Lacaita, F. mandshurica Staudt, F. iinumae Makino, and F. nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J. Gay. SSR primer pair functionality, as measured by amplification success rate (= 100% - failure rate) in each species, was ranked (from highest to lowest) as follows: F. vesca (98.4%) > F. iinumae (93.8%) = F. nubicola (93.8%) > F. mandshurica (87.5%) > F. nilgerrensis (75%) > F. viridis (73.4%). The extent to which these octoploid-derived SSR primer pairs generated markers that could be added to the F. vesca linkage map also was assessed. Of the 13 F. ×ananassa SSR markers that segregated codominantly in the F. vesca mapping population, 11 were assigned to linkage groups based upon close linkages to previously mapped loci. These markers were distributed over six of the seven F. vesca linkage groups, and can serve as anchor loci defining these six groups for purposes of comparative mapping between F. vesca and F. ×ananassa.
The potential of using Fragaria vesca L. as a bridge species for interspecific hybridization to F. nilgerrensis Schlect, F. nubicola Lindl., F. pentaphylla Losinsk, and F. viridis Duch. was investigated using a wide germplasm base of 40 F. vesca accessions. This study was successful in producing many hybrids between F. vesca and other diploid species indicating its value as a bridge species. Of the species used as males, F. nubicola, F. pentaphylla, and F. viridis accessions were more successful, averaging 8 to 16 fruit and 16 to 25 seeds/fruit. It was most difficult to obtain hybrids with F. nilgerrensis, which had only three seeds per fruit. Differences among pollen donors were minimal when hybrid seeds were germinated in vitro. For different species combinations, 75% to 99% of seeds had embryos and 77% to 89% of these embryos germinated. The lack of significant differences in crossability variables among the four F. vesca subspecies [i.e., ssp. americana (Porter) Staudt, ssp. bracteata (Heller) Staudt, ssp. vesca L., and ssp. vesca var. semper-florens L.] demonstrated the similarity between these species and the strong potential for gene flow between F. vesca and other diploid species. As European and North American F. vesca subspecies are not sufficiently divergent to differ in interspecific hybridization, F. vesca may be a younger species rather than an older progenitor species.
The flora of this region is preboreal, and indigenous island genera have related species in Western Europe and North America ( Charkevicz, 1996 ). Charkevicz (1996) described only two diploid Fragaria species native to the far eastern
al. 2021 ). The diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca , like Arabidopsis, has many characteristics that make it amenable to experimentation ( Slovin and Rabinowicz 2007 ; Slovin et al. 2009 ). F. vesca is a small perennial that bears a highly
strawberries as part of their existing operations. F. vesca strawberries are also known as alpine strawberries, diploidstrawberries, or gourmet strawberries. F. vesca has been an attractive model organism for functional genomics research for Rosaceae
by simply monitoring the baseline of strawberry developmental habits in monochromatic light conditions.
PROOF OF CONCEPT IN DIPLOIDSTRAWBERRY ( Fragaria vesca )
The implementation of light as a growth regulator can be tested in the laboratory
A synthetic octoploid was derived from 2 diploid and 1 tetraploid species of Fragaria L. The clone is recommended for use in strawberry breeding as it contains germplasm not previously available at the octoploid level.
Several strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes were shown to form tumors on runners of the diploid strawberry species Fragaria vesca L. Tumors, weighing from 0.1 to 8.3 mg, appeared from 2 to 4.5 weeks after infection. The majority of tumors tested for opine synthesis by high-voltage paper electrophoresis analysis showed positive results. These results demonstrate that diploid strawberry plants are susceptible to infection with Agrobacterium and that there are differences in the relative virulence of Agrobacterium strains.
Bacterial angular leafspot disease (BALD) of strawberry, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae, a slow-growing and often difficult pathogen to isolate from infected plants, is most commonly manifested as small discrete, angular, translucent lesions on leaves and sepals. As the bacteria infect systemically, plants may wilt and die. BALD has become increasingly important in North America and other strawberry-growing areas of the world. The systemic nature of the pathogen also is cause for concern with international shipment of strawberry plants, especially because there is no practical method for determining the presence of the bacteria in symptomless, infected plants, nor is there a practical method of chemical control. All cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa (8×) are susceptible to BALD, although a range of susceptibility is often apparent in plantings. Resistant genotypes have been reported among clones of F. virginiana (8×), F. moschata (6×), and F. vesca (2×). A program has been initiated to evaluate native octoploid and diploid strawberry germplasm for resistance to BALD.