controlled atmosphere storage Postharvest Biol. Technol. 68 32 42 Luby, J. Bedford, D. 1992 Honeycrisp apple. Univ. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Rpt. 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Mattheis, J.P. Rudell, D.R. 2008 Diphenylamine metabolism in ‘Braeburn’ apples stored under
Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat and Randy Beaudry
Albert C. Purvis and James W. Gegogeine
The mechanism by which diphenylamine (DPA) controls superficial scald in apples and reduces chilling injury in green bell peppers [Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Grossum Group)] has been assumed to be related to its antioxidant activity. In the present study, DPA inhibited the respiratory activity of green bell pepper fruit as well as oxygen uptake by the mitochondria isolated from them. When the alternative oxidase was inhibited with n-propyl gallate or disulfiram during state 4 respiration, DPA did not further inhibit O2 uptake. Treating green bell peppers with DPA before storage did not alter the induction and abundance of the alternative oxidase protein in mitochondria which was maximally induced in peppers stored at 4 °C. Whether added before or after the uncoupler, 2,4-dinitrophenol, DPA negated the enhanced O2 uptake associated with uncoupling of electron transfer in isolated mitochondria. These observations indicate that DPA inhibits the flow of electrons through the cytochrome path, probably somewhere in the cytochrome bc 1 complex. Although the secondary amine function of DPA makes it a powerful antioxidant, the effectiveness of DPA in reducing chilling injury in green bell peppers and superficial scald in apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] also may be due, in part, to its inhibition of respiration.
Albert C. Purvis
Diphenylamine has been used to reduce low-temperature-induced storage scald of apples for decades. Its effectiveness in reducing scald has been attributed to its antioxidant properties. Oxidative reactions have also been implicated in chilling injury of other commodities, including green bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Diphenylamine was applied as a dip at rates of 500 to 2000 ppm to green bell peppers prior to storing them for 7 days at 1 °C. The development of sheet pitting, the most common visible symptom of chilling injury in bell peppers, was inhibited almost completely by diphenylamine. Diphenylamine, however, only slightly reduced the chilling-induced decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence ratios. Darkening of the vascular tissues of the calyxes and seed darkening, which are also symptoms of chilling injury, were not prevented by diphenylamine. Thus, diphenylamine either did not get into all of the sites of oxidative reactions or some of the manifestations of chilling injury are initiated by processes other than oxidative ones.
Steve J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, James R. Schupp, Michael L. Parker and Todd B. Edgington
apples for imposing different postharvest treatments. Fruit from control trees were moved to either RA or CA storage with or without prior diphenylamine (DPA) or postharvest 1-MCP treatment. Fruit samples from each of the two preharvest 1-MCP treatments
William J. Bramlage, Zhiguo Ju and Thomas L. Potter
Diphenylamine (DPA) is applied postharvest to apples and pears to control scald development after storage. Using GC - MS analyses of hexane extracts of fruit surfaces, about 0.1 ug/g of DPA was measured on apples after 7 months of storage, even though no fruit in the storage were treated with DPA. Residues also were present on walls in the storage rooms. There is a report that DPA can be produced in plants. Therefore, fruit of 5 cvs. were harvested in mid-August and at commercial maturity and immediately extracted for measurement. A signal similar to that of DPA was detected in all extracts, but concentrations were too low for positive identification. Results show that presence of DPA residue on stored fruit is not proof that DPA was applied before storage. Extracts from freshly harvested fruit are being concentrated to try to ascertain the identity of the indicated material(s).
David Rudell, James Mattheis and John Fellman
Diphenylamine (DPA) is used for superficial scald control in apple fruit. A number of DPA derivatives resulting from C-nitration, C-hydroxylation, O-methylation, and N-nitrosation can be present in DPA-treated apple fruit after storage. The presence of the compounds may be indicative of metabolic processes that lead to scald development. Therefore, apple peel DPA and DPA derivative content in fruit treated at harvest with DPA or DPA plus 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was assayed upon removal of fruit from controlled atmosphere (CA) and regular atmosphere (RA) storage and during a 14-d post-storage ripening period. Apples were also treated at harvest with different concentrations of DPA and assayed after 6 months CA storage to confirm recovery of DPA and DPA derivatives is linear over a wide concentration range. Harvest maturity notably affected peel DPA and 4-hydroxydiphenylamine (4OHDPA) content. Post-storage ripening, 1-MCP treatment, and CA storage had varied affects on DPA derivative content, suggesting reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, such as •OH, •NO, and •NO2, or enzyme catalyzed reactions may be generated during ripening and senescence related physiological processes. Consistent correlations between scald incidence and content of specific derivatives were not observed.
Charles F. Forney*, Jun Song and Michael A. Jordan
Apple fruit are treatmented with diphenylamine (DPA) in the form of a postharvest dip to prevent the development of storage scald. However, DPA residues have been detected on apples not treated with DPA, which is problematic in markets where DPA residues are not acceptable. The objective of this study was to identify sources of DPA contamination and evaluate the effectiveness of ozone to reduce contamination. Concentrations of DPA in the atmosphere of commercial storage rooms was monitored during the storage season and the adsorption of DPA onto wood and plastic bin material, plastic bin liners, foam insulation, and apple fruit was assessed. DPA was sampled from headspace with solid phase micro extraction using 65 μm polyacrylate micro fibers and analyzed using GC-MS. The effectiveness of gaseous treatments of 300 and 800 ppb ozone to reduce DPA contamination on apple fruit and bin material was also determined. DPA was found to volatilize from treated apples and bins into the storage room air, where it was adsorbed onto storage room walls, bins, bin liners and other fruit. DPA was found in the atmosphere of storage rooms containing apples that were not treated with DPA. Wood and plastic bin material, bin liners, and foam insulation all had a high affinity for DPA and were determined to be potential sources of contamination. Ozone reacted with DPA and following gaseous ozone treatments, off-gassing of DPA from wood and plastic bin material and bin liners was reduced. However, ozone was not effective in removing all DPA in contaminated materials and was ineffective in removing DPA from contaminated apples. Due to the pervasive and persistent nature of DPA, fruit should be handled and stored in facilities where DPA is not used to prevent contamination of fruit.
Elena de Castro, Bill Biasi, Elizabeth Mitcham, Stuart Tustin, David Tanner and Jennifer Jobling
acid as well as fruit size ( Kondo, 1992 ). Fruit maturity has been demonstrated to be a factor in susceptibility to internal browning in some apple cultivars ( Lau, 1998 ; Volz et al., 1998 ). In addition, diphenylamine, an antioxidant used
`Newtown' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) treated weekly with urea at 10 g·liter-l or Ca(NO3)2 at 7.5 g·liter-1 for 5 consecutive weeks from late August were greener at harvest and during storage than comparable control fruit. A postharvest dip in Nutri-Save, a polymeric coating, was better for retention of skin greenness than a dip in diphenylamine and both gave greener apples than control (nondipped) fruit. Fruit treated with Ca(NO3)2 displayed lesions that were larger and more numerous than typical bitter pit in the control fruit.
Incidence of scald in nontreated and DPA (2000 mg·liter-1)-treated `Delicious' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) was assessed after 8.5 months in 1.5% or 0.7% O 2 plus 1.5% CO2 at 0.2C, with and without C2H4 scrubbing. Incidence of scald was high in non-DPA fruit held in 1.5% O2, and DPA treatment reduced scald in fruit held in 1.5% or 0.7% O2. Scald control was better with 0.7% O2 and no DPA `treatment than with 1.5% O 2 and a DPA dip. Ethylene scrubbing had no effect on scald in fruit held in 0.7% or 1.5% 02. Susceptibility of fruit to scald-and flesh browning exhibited seasonal variation, which was related to the differences in fruit maturity and the amount of watercore at harvest, respectively. Chemical name used: diphenylamine (DPA).