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an optimized concentration of PGR for producing compact plants. Dikegulac sodium [18.5% dikegulac sodium (Augeo ® ; OHP, Mainland, PA)] is a PGR labeled to reduce or break apical dominance in plant shoots and to enhance lateral branching by disrupting

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sunflower cultivars, referred to as multifloras, generally are not pinched; however, pinching single-stem sunflower cultivars promoted multiple axillary stems with smaller flowers ( Armitage and Laushman, 2003 ). Dikegulac sodium is a plant growth

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lack of consistency across plant species. Cohen (1978) reported 4400 ppm dikegulac sodium increased mean number of shoots of ‘Formosa’ indica azalea ( Rhododendron indicum ) compared with manually pinching yet there was no difference in shoot number

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different modes of action have been developed to suppress apical dominance and enhance branching. Dikegulac sodium is translocated in the phloem to the apical meristem, inhibiting DNA synthesis resulting in a chemical pinching effect. Benzyladenine, a

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species was conducted as a separate experiment and included an untreated control, DS (Augeo, 18% dikegulac sodium; OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 400 mg·L −1 , 800 mg·L −1 , or 1600 mg·L −1 ; BA (Configure, 2% benzyladenine; Fine Americas, Inc., Walnut Creek

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Abstract

Foliar sprays of 0.5% dikegulac sodium applied to 4 cultivars of greenhouse-forcing azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) 11 days after shearing, decreased shoot length and increased shoot number with more shoots originating along the entire stem at lower node positions than on untreated plants. Five to 6 weeks after treatment shoot length increased normally indicating that dikegulac sodium did not have a long term depressive effect on azalea shoot growth and development.

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Abstract

Foliar sprays of 0.05% to 0.4% dikegulac-sodium (Atrinal) reduced shoot elongation and promoted lateral branching of container-grown Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. ‘Colorata’, purple wintercreeper during the first season of growth. The most effective treatment for chemical pruning was a singe foliar spray of 0.1% dikegulac which produced plants with the most shoot growth, optimum branching, and only initial leaf yellowing.

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Abstract

Foliar spray of dikegulac-sodium in a 20% formulation (Atrinal) at concentration of 0.4 and 0.6% active ingredient in aqueous solutions were found to effectively pinch ‘California Sunset’, ‘Chimes’, ‘Dogwood’, ‘Gloria’, ‘Knute Erwin’ and ‘Rose Queen’ evergreen azaleas (Rhododendron simsii Planch.) but not ‘Red Wing’. Pinching was effective under several environmental conditions but was enhanced by late afternoon applications when temperature and light were lower and the relative humidity higher. Atrinal was effective on both vegetative and early reproductive shoots.

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Abstract

Foliar sprays of dikegulac-sodium (sodium salt of 2,3:4,6-bis-0-(1-methylethylidene)-alpha-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid) at 722 and 2888 ppm and hand-pinching significantly increased branching of chili pepper cultivars ‘Sandia’, ‘NM 6’, and ‘Espanola 1’ (Capsicum annuum L.). Both dikegulac-sodium concentrations were equally effective in increasing branching. Hand-pinching and dikegulac-sodium at 722 ppm did not influence plant height. Dikegulac-sodium at 2888 ppm significantly reduced plant height. Hand-pinching and dikegulac-sodium at 722 ppm delayed first harvest by 9 days. Dikegulac-sodium at 2888 ppm delayed first harvest by 34 days. Dikegulac-sodium at 5053 ppm resulted in death of treated plants. All concentrations of dikegulac-sodium decreased yield.

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Effects of BA, Promalin and Dikegulac-sodium on frond number and overall growth in Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.) were studies. Four weeks after transplanting, fern liners were sprayed with aqueous solutions of BA, Promalin and dikegulac-sodium. Chemical concentrations of BA and promalin ranged from 0 to 150 mg. liter-1 at 50 mg. liter-1 increments. Chemical concentrations of dikegulac-sodium ranged for 0 to 750 mg.liter-1 at 250 mg.liter-1 increments. Chemical treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications. BA and Promalin significantly increased the number of fronds, average frond length, leaf area and dry weight as the concentration of the chemicals increased. In contrast, dikegulac-sodium significantly suppressed the average frond length, leaf area and dry weight when compared to the control. Similarly to BA and Promalin, dikegulac-sodium increased the number of fronds as the concentration of the chemical increased.

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