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Youping Sun, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu and Christina Perez

an optimized concentration of PGR for producing compact plants. Dikegulac sodium [18.5% dikegulac sodium (Augeo ® ; OHP, Mainland, PA)] is a PGR labeled to reduce or break apical dominance in plant shoots and to enhance lateral branching by disrupting

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Amir Rezazadeh, Richard L. Harkess and Guihong Bi

different modes of action have been developed to suppress apical dominance and enhance branching. Dikegulac sodium is translocated in the phloem to the apical meristem, inhibiting DNA synthesis resulting in a chemical pinching effect. Benzyladenine, a

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Diana R. Cochran, Amy Fulcher and Guihong Bi

lack of consistency across plant species. Cohen (1978) reported 4400 ppm dikegulac sodium increased mean number of shoots of ‘Formosa’ indica azalea ( Rhododendron indicum ) compared with manually pinching yet there was no difference in shoot number

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins and Joyce Latimer

species was conducted as a separate experiment and included an untreated control, DS (Augeo, 18% dikegulac sodium; OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 400 mg·L −1 , 800 mg·L −1 , or 1600 mg·L −1 ; BA (Configure, 2% benzyladenine; Fine Americas, Inc., Walnut Creek

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Johnny Carter and Sauveur Mahotiere

Effects of BA, Promalin and Dikegulac-sodium on frond number and overall growth in Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.) were studies. Four weeks after transplanting, fern liners were sprayed with aqueous solutions of BA, Promalin and dikegulac-sodium. Chemical concentrations of BA and promalin ranged from 0 to 150 mg. liter-1 at 50 mg. liter-1 increments. Chemical concentrations of dikegulac-sodium ranged for 0 to 750 mg.liter-1 at 250 mg.liter-1 increments. Chemical treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications. BA and Promalin significantly increased the number of fronds, average frond length, leaf area and dry weight as the concentration of the chemicals increased. In contrast, dikegulac-sodium significantly suppressed the average frond length, leaf area and dry weight when compared to the control. Similarly to BA and Promalin, dikegulac-sodium increased the number of fronds as the concentration of the chemical increased.

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Osamu Kawabata and Richard A. Criley

An aqueous solution of dikegulac-sodium at 0, 2000, 4000, 6000, or 8000 mg a.i./liter was sprayed on a mature Murraya paniculata hedge as the first leaves expanded on newly developing lateral shoots after trimming. The lateral shoots from each 0.09-m2 hedge surface elongated less and the coefficient of variation (cv) decreased as the growth regulator concentration increased. Application of dikegulac-sodium at 4000 mg a.i./liter to the most distal leaf on topped, single-leader seedlings inhibited the elongation of distal shoots while it enhanced proximal shoot growth. Dikegulac-sodium spray between 4000 and 6000 mg a.i./liter to the hedge decreased apical dominance among lateral shoots and enhanced uniform regrowth without causing visible damages. The cv reduction was attributed to the growth regulator-induced weakening of apical dominance. Chemical name used: sodium salt of 2,3:4,6-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-α-l-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac-sodium).

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Jeffrey G. Norcini and James H. Aldrich

The effectiveness of three concentrations of either dikegulac-sodium or mefluidide on the growth of two containerized woody vine crops was investigated. A single application of dikegulac-sodium at 1600, 3200, or 4800 mg·liter-1 or mefluidide at 600, 1200, or 1800 mg·liter-1 was applied to either 3.8-liter containers of Asiatic jasmine (Trachelosoerum asiacticum Siebold and Zucc.) or staked confederate jasmine (Trachelosperum jasminiodes (Lindl.) Lem.) on 25 May 1993. Two additional applications were made at 8 week intervals after transplanting to 9.5-liter containers. Plant growth and phytotoxicity were evaluated 0, 4, and 8, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after application, respectively. Dikegulac-sodium at 3200 mg·liter-1 was the optimum treatment for suppressing the lateral growth of Asiatic jasmine and the vertical growth of confederate jasmine with minimal phytotoxicity. Dikegulac-sodium at 4800 mg·liter-1 excessively inhibited growth of both species and resulted in unacceptable phytotoxicity. All mafluidide treatments had minimal growth inhibitory effect on either species.

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Michelle L. Bell, Roy A. Larson and Douglas A. Bailey

Experiments were designed to determine if the combination of 6-benzyl adenine + gibberellic acid 4+7 can promote increased lateral shoots of desirable number and length on azaleas (Rhododendron simsii Planch.). The use of dikegulac-sodium with the addition of GA4+7 was also investigated to determine if GA4+7 could overcome decreased plant height and diameter caused by dikegulac application. Treatments were applied by spraying 204 ml·m-2 to pinched plants of mean diameter and mean height of 16 and 13 cm, respectively, potted in 1.3 liter plastic containers. Shoot number, plant height and plant diameter were measured 9 weeks after application for the commercially prominent cvs. `Gloria' and `Prize'. Preliminary results indicate that 2100 mg·l-1 ai BA + 2100 mg·l-1 ai GA4+7 increases number of lateral shoots. Initial results suggest the addition of 2100 mg·l-1 ai GA4+7 to 3900 mg·l-1 ai dikegulac overcomes inhibition of internodal elongation induced by dikegulac alone. Further studies will determine the effectiveness of Promalin (N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7, 1:1) as a pinching agent on azaleas.

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Michelle L. Bell, Roy A. Larson and Douglas A. Bailey

Experiments were designed to determine if the combination of 6-benzyl adenine + gibberellic acid 4+7 can promote increased lateral shoots of desirable number and length on azaleas (Rhododendron simsii Planch.). The use of dikegulac-sodium with the addition of GA4+7 was also investigated to determine if GA4+7 could overcome decreased plant height and diameter caused by dikegulac application. Treatments were applied by spraying 204 ml·m-2 to pinched plants of mean diameter and mean height of 16 and 13 cm, respectively, potted in 1.3 liter plastic containers. Shoot number, plant height and plant diameter were measured 9 weeks after application for the commercially prominent cvs. `Gloria' and `Prize'. Preliminary results indicate that 2100 mg·l-1 ai BA + 2100 mg·l-1 ai GA4+7 increases number of lateral shoots. Initial results suggest the addition of 2100 mg·l-1 ai GA4+7 to 3900 mg·l-1 ai dikegulac overcomes inhibition of internodal elongation induced by dikegulac alone. Further studies will determine the effectiveness of Promalin (N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7, 1:1) as a pinching agent on azaleas.

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Sauveur Mahotiere, Clarence Johnson and Philamenia Howard

On Sept. 23, 1988, 12-month-old greenhouse-grown `Mary Washington', `Emerald', `UC 157 F1' and `UC 157 F2' asparagus seedlings were sprayed with dikegulac solutions ranging from 0 to 750 mg·l-1 with 150 mg·l-1 increments. The potted plants were then transferred to a lathhouse to simulate the weather conditions in the field. No significant shoot emergence occurred prior to killing frosts and low temperatures in December. The rise of the temperature in Jan. and Feb. 1989, promoted shoot emergence in all cultivars; but `Mary Washington' did not respond to the treatments. At 600 mg·l-1, the chemical increased shoot emergence in `Emerald', `UC 157 F1' and `UC 157 F2' by a respective cumulative average of 310, 161 and 305% over the control on 2 Feb. After intervening killing frosts and low temp, at the resumption of growth in late February 1989, `UC 157 F,' and `Mary Washington' were first to respond to the residual effects of the chemical, giving at 750 mg·l-1 a respective cumulative increase of 65 and 77% over the control. Dikegulac did not affect the height and dry weight of `Mary Washington' ferns. But it reduced the height of `Emerald' without affecting its dry weight.