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Calcium is an essential human nutrient that is important in bone growth and metabolism. While dairy products in reasonable quantity can supply minimum daily requirements of calcium, the current decline in the consumption of dairy products, especially among teenagers, implies that dietary requirements must be met from other sources. Green beans, spinach and broccoli contain high concentrations of calcium, but the bioavailability of calcium from these food sources has not been determined in children. To provide accurate dietary recommendations for these foods, we have developed a recirculating hydroponic system for the growth and intrinsic labeling of plants with stable isotopes. Plants were maintained on a non-labeled nutrient solution until an appropriate developmental age and were then presented with nutrient solution containing 42-Ca. Labeled green bean pods and spinach were harvested at the proper commercial age, and were cooked, pureed and frozen until use. Thirteen teenage subjects seven girls, six boys) were recruited for a 2-week stay in the Metabolic Research Unit, and were fed 42-Ca-labeled vegetables along with 48-Ca-enriched milk; an intravenous dose of 46-Ca was also administered. Blood, urine and fecal samples were collected during the 2-week study. Calcium bioavailability and kinetics were determined using a multi-compartment model. The bioavailability of calcium averaged 28% from green beans, which was comparable to that of milk calcium. Calcium bioavailability from spinach averaged only 3%, due probably to the high oxalate content of spinach. Our results suggest that low-oxalate containing vegetables such as green beans can serve as good dietary sources of calcium. This research was funded in part by USDA-ARS Coop. Agr. No. 58-6250-1-003 and USDA-CRS Grant No. 94-347200-0605.

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quantified oxalic acid levels in vegetables ( Mou, 2008 ; Savage et al., 2000 ). Because of the role dietary oxalate plays in disease and nutrition, breeding for lower levels of oxalic acid is an area of interest. Table beet roots and leaves are considered

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of oxalic acid is recommended as a dietary change for kidney stone-formers. Besides spinach, other vegetables with a high level of oxalic acid include amaranth, cassava, chives, parsley, and purslane ( USDA, 1984 ). Calcium oxalate is the form

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challenges, including increasing population, climate changes, and water use issues. Almost all of the additional 3.0 billion people projected to inhabit our world by 2050 will reside in developing countries. To meet their dietary requirements, agricultural

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in this case that food and dietary supplement manufacturers should conduct randomized clinical trials for their products in a fashion similar to what the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires for drug companies if their products are being

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, 2003 ). In practical terms, mineral malnutrition can be addressed through supplementation, food fortification, well-chosen dietary diversification, and/or increasing mineral concentrations in edible crops (biofortification). The biofortification of

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et al. 2015 ) and has anticancer properties ( Reang et al. 2021 ). Because human beings do not have the ability to synthesize or store AsA in their bodies, this vitamin must be acquired regularly from dietary uptake. Thus, the natural level of AsA in

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). The plant remains a commercially important food crop where the leaves, petioles, and roots are used and prepared in a variety of ways in cultures around the world. Taro is considered a dietary staple by some due to its high nutritional value ( Manner

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Suaeda glauca China Vegetables. 3 52 Kaşkar, Ç. Fernándeza, J.A. Ochoa, J. Niñirola, D. Conesa, E. Tüzel, Y. 2008 Agronomic behaviour and oxalate and nitrate content of different purslane cultivars ( Portulaca oleracea ) grown in a hydroponic floating

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Nitrates and nitrites from food and water in relation to human disease, p. 163–193. In: M. Hill (ed.). Nitrates and nitrites in food and water. Woodhead Publishing, Hampshire, UK Hord, N. 2011 Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease Curr

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