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Joshua D. Butcher, Charles P. Laubscher, and Johannes C. Coetzee

Oxygen enrichment in deep hydroponic culture improves growth of spinach Envrion. Control Biol. 27 3 97 102 Morse, T.L. Kytömaa, H.K. 2011 The effect of turbulence on the rate of evaporation of LNG on water J. Loss Prevent. Proc. 24 791 797 Oppenheimer, J

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Samuel Doty, Ryan W. Dickson, and Michael Evans

important decision for bedding plant growers transitioning to edible crop production is whether to invest in new hydroponic equipment or modify existing culture systems ( Chidiac, 2017 ). Nutrient film technique (NFT) and deep water culture (DWC) are common

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Daniel P. Gillespie, Gio Papio, and Chieri Kubota

grown leafy greens. Most leafy green hydroponics operations employ liquid-based cultivation systems such as nutrient film technique and deep water culture (DWC), which allow for efficient water and nutrient use and high productivity. However, although

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M.A. Sherif, P.A. Loretan, A.A. Trotman, J.Y. Lu, and L.C. Garner

Nutrient technique (NFT) and deep water culture (DWC) hydroponic systems were used to grow sweetpotao to study the effect of four nutrient solution treatments on: translocation of nutrients and plant and microbial population growth in split-root channels. 'TU-155'cuttings (15 cm) were prerooted for 30 days in sand in 4 cm CPVC pipes 46 cm in length. A modified half Hoagland (MHH) solution was supplied ad libidum. After 30 days, plants were removed and the roots of each plant were cleaned and split evenly between two channels (15 cm deep by 15 cm wide by 1.2 m long). four plants per channel. Nutrient solution treatments (replicated) were: MHH-MHH: MHH-Air, MHH-deionized water (DIW); and monovalent (Mono) - divalent (Dival) anions and cations. Solution samples were continuously collected at 7-day intervals for microbial population profiling. Plants were harvested after growing for 120 days in a greenhouse. Storage roots, when produced, were similar in nutritive components. However, no storage roots were produced in Air or Mono channels and only a few in DIW. Fresh and dry weights for storage roots and foliage were highest in MHH-MHH in both NFT and DWC in repeated experiments. Population counts indicated that nutrient solution composition influenced the size of the microbial population in NFT. Population counts were highest in Dival channels. The microbial population counts (4.20-7.49 cfu/mL) were. relatively high in both NFT and DWC systems.

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Rida Shibli, L. Art Spomer, and Mary Ann Lila Smith


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Daniel P. Gillespie, Chieri Kubota, and Sally A. Miller

culture technologies in the modern greenhouse industry – A review Eur. J. Hort. Sci. 83 280 293 Smith, B.R. Fisher, P.R. Argo, W.R. 2004 Water-soluble fertilizer concentration and pH of a peat-based substrate affect growth, nutrient uptake, and chlorosis

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Cary A. Mitchell, and Jay Frick

A solid-matrix-over-liquid (hybrid) growth system was developed for direct sowing of small-seeded crop species into hydroponic culture and compared for performance with a standard solid-matrix, capillary-wick hydroponic system. Seeds were sown directly onto a 3-cm (1.2-inch) deep soilless seed bed occupying 0.147 m2 (1.582 ft2) within a tray. The planted seed bed was moistened by wicking up nutrient solution through polyester wicking material from a 7.0-L (6.6-qt) reservoir just below the matrix seed bed. The hybrid system successfully grew dense [435 plants/m2 (40.4 plants/ft2)], uniform canopies of dwarf Brassica napus L. in a controlled-environment growth room. Seed yield using the hybrid system was twice that achieved with the matrix-based system. Both systems eliminated the labor needed to transplant many small seedlings from a separate nurse bed into a standard bulk liquid hydroponic system. Root-zone pH extremes caused by ion uptake and exchange between roots and unrinsed soilless media were avoided for the hybrid system by the short dwell time of roots in the thin matrix before they grew through the matrix and an intervening headspace into the bulk solution below, where pH was easily managed. Once roots grew into the bulk solution, its level was lowered, thereby cutting off further capillary wicking action and drying out the upper medium. Beyond early seedling establishment, water and nutrients were provided to the crop stand only by the bulk nutrient solution. This hybrid hydroponic system serves as a prototype for largerscale soilless growth systems that could be developed for production of smallseeded crops in greenhouses or controlled environments.

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Szu-Chin Peng, Iou-Zen Chen, and Cheng-Yung Cheng

culture system used for clonal propagation of taiwanese wild grape. It was composed of a water bath circulator and floating microtube racks. Cuttings were put into the holes of floating racks and inserted in the distilled water. Light (average 600 μmol

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Jong-Seok Park and Kenji Kurata

Microbubble technology has been gathering much attention in many fields, including foam fractionation, food processing, purification processing of polluted water, and marine culture of oysters ( Kodama et al., 2000 ; Ohnari and Tsunami, 2006

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Jingjin Yu, Mengxian Liu, Zhimin Yang, and Bingru Huang

requirement). Measurements of soil, plant growth, and physiological indices. SWC in a 0–20 cm deep soil layer of each pot was measured as an indication of the level of soil water deficit using time domain reflectometry (Mini Trase Kit 6050X3; Soil Moisture