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Susan C. Miyasaka, Marisa Wall, Don LaBonte, and Alton Arakaki

between results of laboratory studies (e.g., antibiosis studies and root choice) and those of field studies ( Stathers et al., 2003b ), demonstrating the importance of conducting cultivar trials in the field. Most consumers in the United States prefer

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Lynn P. Brandenberger*, Lynda K. Wells, and Bruce B. Bostian

The objectives of this trial were to collect yield and quality data on a fall planted carrot trial. Fifteen different carrot varieties were included in the trial. Plots were 20 feet by 2.5 feet and consisted of two rows of carrots with 15-inch row centers. Plots were replicated 4 times in a RBD. Carrots were direct seeded on 8 Aug. 2003 at 20 seeds per foot. Plots were fertilized with 90 lbs/acre of nitrogen and received overhead water as needed. Yield and quality data were recorded on 5 Dec. 2003. Data included exterior root color, interior root color, percentage of split and forked roots, overall yield, average root length and weight. Exterior root color did not vary significantly for any of the cultivars in the trial, but interior root color varied significantly for several cultivars. `First Class', `Bolero', and `C 7105' had the most distinct differences between the pith and out ring colors as indicated by the interior root color ratings and `Ingot' had the lowest. Interior root color ratings for these four cultivars were 3.8, 3.6, 3.1, and 1.4, respectively. Crispness did not vary for either the initial or second ratings that were recorded. Of potential defects only the percentage of forked roots varied significantly and of these four cultivars had less than 10% forked roots. `Florida', `Kamaran', `Pipeline', and `C 7105' had 5%, 7%, 9%, and 9% forked roots, respectively. `Samantha' had 31% forked roots, the highest percentage recorded in the trial. No differences were recorded for root weight, diameter or length. The three highest yielding cultivars in the trial were `Ingot', `Heritage', and `Neptune' that had overall yields of 24.9, 20.6, and 20.6 tons/acre. `Bremen' recorded the lowest yield in the trial with 13.7 tons/acre.

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Mary H. Meyer, Pamela J. Bennett, Barbara Fair, James E. Klett, Kimberly Moore, H. Brent Pemberton, Leonard Perry, Jane Rozum, Alan Shay, and Matthew D. Taylor

across the United States ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Supplier, origin, year of introduction, plant patent, and references for five little bluestem and 17 switchgrass cultivars in national grass trials in 2012–15. Both switchgrass and little bluestem have large

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Melisa Crane, Todd C. Wehner, and Rachel P. Naegele

planting density for use in containers and 2) evaluate field trials as a predictor of cultivar performance in containers. Materials and Methods Experiments were conducted at the Horticultural Crops Research Station in Clinton, NC, during the spring (May

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Glenn C. Wright

Two lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] cultivar selection trials are being conducted at the Yuma Mesa Agriculture Center in Somerton, Ariz. Some selections in these trials include: `Allen Eureka', `Berna', `Cook Eureka', `Cascade Eureka', `Cavers Lisbon', `Strong Lisbon', `Femminello Comune', `Lapithkiotiki', `Limoneira 8A Lisbon', `Limonero Fino 49', `Monroe Lisbon', `Primofiori', `Santa Teresa', `Walker Lisbon', and `Villafranca'. Selections that have had superior yields include `Cascade Eureka', `Cook Eureka', `Strong Lisbon', `Limoneira 8A Lisbon', `Limonero Fino 49', `Primofiori', `Femminello Comune', and `Villafranca'. Fruit size data suggest that `Limonero Fino 49' has consistently good fruit size, and consistently larger fruit than `Limoneira 8A', the industry standard. `Cavers Lisbon' and `Femminello Comune' also have good fruit size. `Lapithkiotiki' also had large fruit size, but its shape was unacceptably elongated. We also found significant differences in peel thickness and juice pH among the selections. `Santa Teresa' had significantly lower juice pH and a thinner peel than some of the other selections under evaluation.

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Craig R Andersen and Danielle B. Williams

Pumpkin cultivar trials were held in 2003 and 2004 at the Agricultural Experiment Station Fayetteville, AR. 18 cultivars were direct seeded the 4th week of June. Plots 8 plants each, spaced 3 ft apart, 12 ft between rows were randomly replicated 6 times. Pumpkin fruit were harvested October 1 and evaluated for number, size shape, and quality. Plots were irrigated by drip irrigation and standard production practices were followed. During 2004 the same practices were followed except plots were planted during the second week of July. In 2003 large fruited pumpkins yielded 700 to 1950 fruit per acre. Howden, the industry standard yielded 700 fruit, averaging 16 lb each, with a gross return of $700/acre. Cultivar fruit size ranged from 15 to 27 lb, and yields ranged from 10200 to 52000 lbs to the acre. Based on the 1 Oct. 2003 prices from USDA AMS, gross returns ranged from $744 to $1760 per acre. Specialty types Jack be Quick, Rouge, and Long Island Cheese yielded 15700, 1800, and 1470 fruit per acre valued at $2100, 1950, and 3400 respectively. Excessive rain in June 2004, and cooler that normal weather during July and early August significantly affected quality and yields of pumpkin fruit. Fruit number and size per plot were reduced up to 75%. Yields ranged from 10% to 20% of 2003 yields. Fruit quality was significantly affected making most of the fruit harvest unmarketable due to immaturity and size.

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M.D. Orzolek, W.J. Lamont, and L. Otjen

Twenty-two cabbage cultivars were evaluated in the spring and 26 cabbage cultivars evaluated in the fall of 1997. The cultivars were evaluated for uniformity of maturity, marketable yield, percent cull, stem core length, and head firmness. In addition, three heads of each cultivar were tasted at harvest by the summer farm crew and responses noted on the data collection forms. The highest yielding cultivars were not necessarily the best performing ones evaluated in the trial. Average head weight was significantly different between spring and fall plantings. Data from this trial suggests that multiple cultivars should be grown in Pennsylvania based on whether it is a spring or fall cabbage crop.

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Robert J. McNeil* and Colleen M. Dettling

A 4-year `Satsuma' mandarin cultivar trial was conducted on the California Central Coast in San Luis Obispo. Cultivars compared were Owari, Dobashi Beni, and Okitsu Wase, all on Carizzo citrange rootstock. Trees were from 3 to 6 years of age and in their first 4 years of production during the four seasons that data was taken. Data taken each year was fruit maturity, color, size, and yield. Tree size was measured in the fourth year. `Okitsu Wase' fruit were harvestable 2 to 4 weeks earlier than `Owari' and `Dobashi Beni' considering meeting both minimum soluble solids to acid ratio (6.5/1) and minimum color (75%). `Okitsu Wase' was more consistent as to time of maturity. Maturity time of all cultivars varied each season based on weather. `Okitsu Wase' first minimum internal maturity varied from 15 Oct. to 1 Nov. Minimum color varied from 1 Nov. to 1 Dec. Dobashi Beni first internal maturity varied from 15 Oct. to 31 Dec. Minimum color varied from 15 Nov. to 31 Dec. Owari first minimum internal maturity varied from 15 Nov. to 31 Dec. Minimum color varied from 15 Nov. to 31 Dec. `Owari' had the highest total yield for the 4 years, followed by `Dobashi Beni'. `Okitsu Wase' had a significantly lower total yield than the other two cultivars for the 4 years. `Okitsu Wase' had higher percentages of smaller fruit and lower percentages of larger fruit than the other two cultivars in the first and fourth crop year, but had comparable percentages of larger fruit in the second and third year. The `Okitsu Wase' was a smaller tree than both the `Owari' and `Dobashi Beni' in height, width, and canopy volume.

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Jose A. Yuri, Claudia Moggia, Carolina A. Torres, Alvaro Sepulveda, Valeria Lepe, and Jose L. Vasquez

% smaller TCAs than M.M.106s at Year 6. ‘Cripp's Pink’ showed the least reduction of 26% average and only at the end of the trial ( Table 6 ). This cultivar is known to be vigorous ( Trillot et al., 2002 ); therefore, it could have outweighed the dwarfing

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Neil O. Anderson

A case study is presented for use as an active learning tool for students in a floriculture potted plant production class. This is the second case study developed for Floratech, a potted plant finisher. Students work together in small groups to solve the proposed problems; each student role-plays as a Potted Plant Production Specialist. A memorandum from the Board of Directors is delivered in their first month on the job at Floratech. Objectives of this case study are to determine the students' fluency in terminology and crop-specific cultural requirements for potted plant production of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) and primrose (Primula sp.) as well as their ability to setup a scientifically rigorous and unbiased cultivar trial for Floratech personnel and selected customers. Students research the latest commercial catalogs to determine which species, series, and cultivars are available, as well as their relative merits, prior to choosing the appropriate cultivars to include in the trial. The trial setup has a space limitation of 2,000 ft2 (186 m2). This case study was tested with 20 undergraduate students during Fall Semester 1999. The case study demonstrated the students' fluency with terminology and crop-specific cultural requirements for both crops. Their ability to set up a scientifically rigorous trial varied widely, often with an inadequate sampling of cultivars and excessive replications (56 ± 37 cyclamen to 132 ± 65 primrose). A mean ± sd of 4 ± 1 cyclamen and 7 ± 3 primrose series were chosen. The number of cultivars varied from 6 ± 2 cyclamen to 9 ± 4 primrose and the number of distributors was similar for the crops. Trial design and additional questions raised by the case study were discussed in class and applied in a cultivar trial in the lab. Unanswered questions were used as learning opportunities during class tours with local growers.