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Todd C. Wehner and Beiquan Mou

published descriptions from scientific journals, seed catalogs, and websites of seed companies. Assistant editors responsible for each crop were instructed to obtain as much information as possible about the cultivars available to North American growers. The

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Robert J. Rouse, Paul R. Fantz, and Ted E. Bilderback

Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don [Cupressaceae Bartling, formerly assigned to Taxodiaceae Warm.] is increasing in popularity as a landscape plant in the eastern United States. A taxonomic study of cultivars grown in the eastern United States was conducted. Forty-five cultivars were recognized. Each cultivar bears synonymy, a quantitative morphological description newly described from field data, herbarium vouchers, references to original literature and observational notes. A glossary of taxonomic terms relevant to Cryptomeria is presented. A taxonomic key is presented for segregation of cultivars that should assist professional plantsmen in identification of taxa cultivated in the eastern United States.

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Description of Cultivars: Science or Advertising

A Reply to Werner J. Lipton's Essay in the April 1988 ASHS Newsletter

Paul Lyrene

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Todd C. Wehner

Individuals knowing of new cultivars to add to the list, or corrections to be made in the published lists are encouraged to contact TCW ( ). The assistance of Shannon Woods (American Seed Trade Association), and Marie

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W.D. Lane, D.-L. McKenzie, and M. Meheriuk

Nodules associated with the main cortical vascular bundles in fruit of the `Gala' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) strains `Royal' and `Regal' were observed in several growing seasons. The nodules were found in 68% (n = 586) of the fruits examined, with a mean of 2.5 nodules per fruit. The nodules were first detected in developing fruit 2 months after bloom and were normally 1-2 mm in diameter by commercial harvest maturity. The nodules, like the vascular bundles, were pale green. They were inconspicuous at first, but became conspicuous and unattractive and changed to brown or red as the fruit became overmature. Nodules in the fruit of the `Gala' × `Splendour' hybrid `8S 27-2' were dark brown or red at picking maturity, and occurred with high frequency. Nodules were also observed in `Splendour', but were small, pale green, and infrequent in this cultivar. Microscopic examination of the nodules revealed that they typically contained a central cavity surrounded by a lignified wall with small pigmented cells outside the wall adjacent to the cortex. Low-frequency irrigation cycle times generally promoted the development of nodules in both `Gala' strains but nitrogen treatments did not affect nodule frequency in `Royal Gala'. Mean fruit nodule frequency tended to be higher, overall, in `Regal Gala' (3.9) than in `Royal Gala' (1.4).

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Paul R. Fantz, Dennis Carey, Tony Avent, and Jason Lattier

. Accurate identification of liriopogon cultivars is difficult as cultivar descriptions used in catalogs and literature are qualitative in substance. Thus, one description (e.g., scapes overtop leaves with purplish flowers; leaves variegated with a golden

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Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes

numbers of flower buds in each shoot category compared with the other cultivars ( Table 3 ). This agrees with previous descriptions of the cultivar indicating that it blooms heavily ( Aldrich, 1984 ). Despite the similarities between ‘Nonpareil’ and

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Guilherme Locatelli, Rafael Pio, Rayane Barcelos Bisi, Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza, Mariana Thereza Rodrigues Viana, Daniela da Hora Farias, Evaristo Mauro de Castro, and Carolina Ruiz Zambon

., 2014 ). Many authors have performed morphological studies primarily of leaves, which are fast-adapting organs, to assist in their selection of cultivars, progenies, or accessions of different species to adapt to water deficits. The results have shown