Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 521 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All
Full access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

‘Gala’ apple strains are susceptible to stem-end fruit cracking at harvest ( Fallahi et al., 2013 ) and during storage ( Lee et al., 2013 , 2016 ). The incidence of stem-end fruit cracking at harvest is influenced by several factors such as

Full access

Olga Dichala, Ioannis Therios, Magdalene Koukourikou-Petridou, and Aristotelis Papadopoulos

). Poor Ni nutrition potentially affects primary metabolism in such a way that endogenous availability of certain aminoacids, organic acids, and acetyl-CoA can potentially limit lignification ( Bai et al., 2006 ). Cracking or splitting of fruits is a

Full access

Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Gene E. Lester, Noelia Dos-Santos, Juan Antonio Martínez, Juan Esteva, John L. Jifon, and Plácido Varó

Fruit cracking (also known as growth cracks or fruit splitting) is a major physiological disorder that can cause significant economic losses in a wide variety of fruit including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicon ), cherry ( Prunus avium ), apple ( Malus

Free access

Andreas Winkler, Max Ossenbrink, and Moritz Knoche

Rain cracking is a problem for sweet cherry production in all countries where this very high-value crop is grown ( Christensen, 1996 ). Despite considerable research effort the mechanistic basis of the phenomenon is still poorly understood. The

Full access

M.M. Peet

The environmental and physiological causes of cracking or splitting of soft fruits and citrus as they ripen are not well understood. This paper explores factors contributing to radial cracking in tomatoes, gives suggestions for prevention of cracking, and suggests directions for future research. Fruit cracking occurs when there is a rapid net influx of water and solutes into the fruit at the same time that ripening or other factors reduce the strength and elasticity of the tomato skin. In the field, high soil moisture tensions suddenly lowered by irrigation or rains are the most frequent cause of fruit cracking. Low soil moisture tensions reduce the tensile strength of the skin and increase root pressure. In addition, during rain or overhead irrigation, water penetrates into the fruit through minute cracks or through the corky tissue around the stem scar. Increases in fruit temperature raise gas and hydrostatic pressures of the pulp on the skin, resulting in immediate cracking in ripe fruit or delayed cracking in green fruit. The delayed cracking occurs later in the ripening process when minute cracks expand to become visible. High light intensity may have a role in increasing cracking apart from its association with high temperatures. Under high light conditions, fruit soluble solids and fruit growth rates are higher. Both of these factors are sometimes associated with increased cracking. Anatomical characteristics of crack-susceptible cultivars are: 1) large fruit size, 2) low skin tensile strength and/or low skin extensibility at the turning to the pink stage of ripeness, 3) thin skin, 4) thin pericarp, 5) shallow cutin penetration, 6) few fruits per plant, and 7) fruit not shaded by foliage. Following cultural practices that result in uniform and relatively slow fruit growth offers some protection against fruit cracking. These practices include maintenance of constant soil moisture and good Ca nutrition, along with keeping irrigation on the low side. Cultural practices that reduce diurnal fruit temperature changes also may reduce cracking. In the field, these practices include maintaining vegetative cover. Greenhouse growers should maintain minimal day/night temperature differences and increase temperatures gradually from nighttime to daytime levels. For both field and greenhouse tomato growers, harvesting before the pink stage of ripeness and selection of crack-resistant cultivars probably offers the best protection against cracking. Areas for future research include developing environmental models to predict cracking and exploring the use of Ca and gibberellic acid (GA) sprays to prevent cracking.

Free access

Caroline Gibert, Joël Chadœuf, Gilles Vercambre, Michel Génard, and Françoise Lescourret

Cuticular cracks may be defined as the physical failure of the fruit skin ( Milad and Shackel, 1992 ). They form shallow or deeper oblong wounds on fruit ( Nguyen-The, 1991 ; Sekse, 1998 ). In addition to having a negative affect on fruit

Free access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

flavor and texture at harvest and after storage of ‘Gala’ apples continues to make this cultivar highly desirable to consumers ( Boylston et al., 1994 ; Cliff et al., 1998 ). ‘Gala’ apples are susceptible to development of stem-end cracking (splitting

Free access

Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

Wherever sweet cherries are grown, rain-induced fruit cracking imposes a major limitation to production ( Christensen, 1996 ). Susceptibility to rain cracking differs among cultivars ( Christensen, 1995 , 1999 , 2000 ; Measham et al., 2009 ), but

Full access

Stephen S. Miller

-fruit market, ‘Stayman’ often receives a premium price (D. Rice, personal communication), making it an attractive cultivar to growers. Despite all its good qualities, ‘Stayman’ is susceptible to fruit cracking. Characterized by large cracks that develop in the

Free access

Andreas Winkler, Stefanie Peschel, Kathleen Kohrs, and Moritz Knoche

Rain cracking severely limits sweet cherry production in all regions of the world where rainfall occurs immediately before and during the harvest period ( Christensen, 1996 ). Rain cracking is thought to be related to an excessively positive water