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Timothy K. Broschat

, prevention of B deficiencies may be achieved through the use of controlled-release B fertilizers that are not greatly affected by leaching ( Page and Cooper, 1955 ). In slow-growing plants such as palms (Palmae family), chronic and recurring acute B

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Jerry B. Sartain

Restoration Act of 1999 ( Bartnick et al., 2005 ). Controlled-release fertilizers are soluble fertilizer (SF) coated in polymer, resin, or sulfur-coated urea in a polymer coating ( Trenkel, 2010 ). Field measurements of CRF N release have been made by

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Fernanda Trientini and Paul R. Fisher

in ion concentration and pH over time require constant monitoring and adjustment ( Sonneveld and Voogt, 2009 ). Sophisticated real-time monitoring and control are unlikely to be feasible for small-scale home gardeners. Controlled-release fertilizers

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L. Carolina Medina, Thomas A. Obreza, Jerry B. Sartain, and Robert E. Rouse

, including the use of controlled-release fertilizer technology, may improve N use efficiency and decrease the potential for N loss to the environment. Controlled-release fertilizer is formulated to gradually deliver nutrients to plants at a rate that matches

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Kelly T. Morgan, Kent E. Cushman, and Shinjiro Sato

controlled-release fertilizer (CRF; referred to collectively as S/CRF) release N, and in some cases, other fertilizer elements, at different rates and through different mechanisms ( Sartain et al., 2004 ). These release mechanisms will be discussed below

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T.K. Hartz and R.F. Smith

Research on the use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) in California vegetable production has been conducted for more than 30 years. Since Lorenz et al. (1972) evaluated CRF for potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum

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Luther C. Carson and Monica Ozores-Hampton

ammonium (NH 4 + ) to nitrate (NO 3 − ) by bacteria or to slow the enzymatic transformation of urea to NH 4 + ( Trenkel, 1997 ). Controlled-release fertilizers, the last subgroup of EEFs, are urea, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, or other soluble

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Sueyde Fernandes de Oliveira Braghin, Simone C. Mello, Jéssika Angelotti-Mendonça, Keigo Minami, and Yuncong C. Li

crotons with esthetic quality and low N leaching. Literature Cited Andiru, G.A. Pasian, C.C. Frantz, J.M. Jourdan, P. 2013 Longevity of controlled-release fertilizer influences the growth of bedding impatiens HortTechnology 23 157 164 Augusto, D

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Taun Beddes and Heidi A. Kratsch

sustainable production ( Urbano, 1989 ). The use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) for crop fertilization has been touted as a means to reduce NO 3 -N leaching from containerized nursery crops ( Colangelo and Brand, 2001 ), and CRF is now widely used in

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Jerry B. Sartain

9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Data were presented as cumulative percentage N released (PNR). Table 1. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) used in the accelerated temperature-controlled incubation and the field pouch methods incubated in white