The term controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) was first introduced in the 1960s and refers to an intensive approach for controlling plant growth and development by capitalizing on advanced horticultural techniques and innovations in technology
Poster Session 11—Controlled Environments 18 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F
121 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 613-620) CROSS-COMMODITY GROWTH CHAMBERS AND CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS
advantages of both soilless and water-culture methods of production. Some of these include uniform nutrient supply, sterilized root-zone environment, controlled delivery of nutrients to plants, and easy transportation of plants. The first documentation of
142 ORAL SESSION 41 (Abstr. 662–667) Controlled Environments–Vegetables
Organic vegetable production under glass or in other protected environments, hereto referred as controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) is growing, according to the 2014 census of organic agriculture reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
organized by the ASHS Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants and Controlled Environments Working Groups held at the ASHS Annual Conference Las vegas, Nevada 21 July 2005
The development of controlled environments in the early 1950’s with sufficient radiation intensity to obtain vigorous plant growth initiated a rapid explosion of environmental research. It was an explosion that provided a decade or a decade and one-half of real excitement in plant physiology. Many light, temperature and carbon dioxide interactions were unraveled, as it was possible to vary one factor and hold all other factors of the environment constant. The controlled environment was a must for plant physiologists if their work was to have real validity.
Controlled environment agriculture, including greenhouses and indoor production facilities, is becoming an increasingly important part of the global food system. Totally enclosed, indoor vegetable growing facilities were developed in Japan beginning
To assess the cost and area/volume requirements of a farm in a space station or Lunar or Martian base, a few laboratories in the United States, the Soviet Union, France, and Japan are studying optimum controlled environments for the production of selected crops. Temperature, light, photoperiod, CO2, humidity, the root–zone environment, and cultivars are the primary factors being manipulated to increase yields and harvest index. Our best wheat yields on a time basis (24 g·m–2·day–1 of edible biomass) are five times good field yields and twice the world record. Similar yields have been obtained in other laboratories with potatoes and lettuce; soybeans are also promising. These figures suggest that ≈30 m2 under continuous production could support an astronaut with sufficient protein and about 2800 kcal-day-1. Scientists under Iosif Gitelzon in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, have lived in a closed system for up to 5 months, producing 80% of their own food. Thirty square meters for crops were allotted to each of the two men taking part in the experiment.