oil-yielding varieties. Fig. 4. Analysis of variance for fruit oil content (FOC) in 39 germplasms. Correlation among analyzed traits. Correlation analysis showed that FOC was positively and significantly correlated with MOC ( r = 0.74**), M/F ( r = 0
Peng Shi, Yong Wang, Dapeng Zhang, Yin Min Htwe and Leonard Osayande Ihase
Lauri M. Baker, Cheryl R. Boyer, Hikaru H. Peterson and Audrey E.H. King
methods A quantitative content analysis was used to determine how horticultural businesses were using ODS to sell live plants to customers. This research method allows for objective and systematic quantitative description of content ( Berelson, 1952
John P. Navazio and Philipp W. Simon
Three orange-mesocarp derivatives of the xishuangbannan cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan), P100, P101, and P104; and NPI (P105), an unrelated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) reported to have orange flesh, were selected as parents for a diallel experiment to evaluate inheritance of orange cucumber mesocarp pigment over 3 years. Visual color intensity and carotenoid content were closely related. A preponderance of additive genetic effects for cucumber mesocarp pigmentation was observed in grade size 2 fruit (immature fruit used for pickling). Both additive and nonadditive genetic effects were important in grade size 4 fruit (mature). Years and yea× genotype interactions were highly significant for pigmentation of size 2 fruit, indicating the importance of environment on the expression of pigmentation in this size class. In contrast, color development was stable among years for size 4 fruit. P104 exhibited high general combining ability (GCA) estimates for size 4 fruit pigmentation across years, while P101 had high GCA estimates for size 2 fruit. The diallel analysis illustrated high fruit carotene content of parents per se. However, most hybrid combinations of the diallel reduced carotenoid content relative to parents, indicating both dominance for low carotenoid content for both fruit sizes and lack of genetic complementation among parents to enhance fruit color. Genetic control of pigmentation in size 2 fruit appeared to be independent of that for size 4 fruit.
Teri Hale*, Richard Hassell and Tyron Phillips
Taste panel perception and preference of sweetness in three phenotypes (su, se and sh2) of sweet corn harvested at three maturities (early, mature and late) were compared to refractometer measurements and HPLC analysis of fructose, sucrose, and glucose. Panelist rating of sweetness and acceptability significantly correlated with HPLC analysis. These correlations were found for sucrose and total sugars present (for sweetness, r 2 = 0.70 and 0.61; acceptability, r 2 = 0.64 and 0.55). Sucrose significantly correlated with the total sugars present (r 2 = 0.95). The panelists' perception of flavor also correlated significantly with the amount of sucrose present and total sugars (r 2 = 0.66 and 0.59, respectively). Sucrose content was significantly different between se, sh2 and su, with sh2 having the highest level. Taste panels indicated this difference but showed not significant differnece between se and sh2 acceptablity. Su was only acceptable to panelists at early maturity. °Brix did not reflect the taste panels scores and HPLC measurements postively. Soluble solids and taste panel scores were negatively correlated in both the panel's perception of sweetness and acceptability (r 2 = -0.66 and -0.66, respectively) which indicates that as panel scores decreased °Brix increased. Comparison of soluble solids to HPLC analysis, indicate that °Brix was negatively correlated to sucrose and total sugar content, and that as soluble solids increased, the sucrose or total sugar concentration remained constant or decreased. Soluble solids measurements have been positively correlated with sucrose levels in other crops; but this was not the case with sweet corn.
C.R. Galmarini, I.L. Goldman and M.J. Havey
Solid content is an important characteristic related to onion flavor, texture, and storability and has practical importance for the dehydration industry. Among the salutary effects of Allium vegetables on the cardiovascular system is the inhibition of platelet activity. Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and acute coronary syndromes because they facilitate blood coagulation. Pungency is also an important commercial trait. A 138-point genetic map is being used to identify and estimate the magnitude of quantitative trait loci controlling solid content, pungency, and health-enhancing attributes of onion. QTL controlling pungency, total solids, soluble solids, and antiplatelet activity were estimated using 54 F3 families, derived from the cross between Brigham `Yellow Globe 15-23' (BYG15-23) and `Ailsa Craig' (AC43). The families, the two parents, and controls were evaluated in four environments, at Palmyra or Randolph, Wis., during 1997 and 1998, on muck soils. For the analyzed traits there is evidence of trangressive segregation, the distributions are, in general, skewed towards the BYG 15-23 parent. Our results confirmed the existence of strong phenotypic correlations among the traits under study. QTL data available also suggest the existence of significant correlations between markers and the traits under study. Most of the markers that are significant for pungency and antiplatelet activity are also significant for solids, suggesting that these characteristics may be controlled by the same chromosome regions.
Frank M. Elia, George L. Hosfield, James D. Kelly and Mark A. Uebersax
A knowledge of the relative proportion of additive and nonadditive genetic variances for complex traits in a population forms a basis for studying trait inheritance and can be used as a tool in plant breeding. A North Carolina Design II mating scheme was used to determine the inheritance of cooking time, protein and tannin content, and water absorption among 16 genotypes of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) representative of the Andean Center of Domestication. Heritability and the degree of dominance for the traits were also calculated to provide guidelines for adopting breeding strategies for cultivar development. Thirty-two progeny resulted from the matings and these were assigned to two sets of 16 progeny each. Variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for the traits. The GCA was larger in all cases. Narrow-sense heritability for protein, tannin, water absorption, and cooking time averaged 0.88, 0.91, 0.77, and 0.90, respectively. Degree of dominance estimates indicted that the traits were governed by genes with partial dominance except, in one case, tannin had a degree of dominance value of zero, indicating no dominance. The phenotypic correlation (-0.82) between water absorption and cooking time justifies using the water absorption trait as an indirect selection method for cooking time. With regard to parent selection in crosses, significant differences between GCA females and GCA males suggested cytoplasmic influences on trait expression. Hence, the way a parent is used in a cross (i.e., as female or male) will offset trait segregation. Using fast-cooking bean cultivars in conjunction with fuel-efficient cooking methods may be the best strategy to conserve fuelwood and help reduce the rate of deforestation in East and Central Africa.
Michael A. Arnold and Christine D. Townsend
Recipients of a monthly horticultural job opportunities newsletter and firms or organizations listing positions in the newsletter were surveyed to determine the perceived value of the newsletter as a job search and recruitment tool, respectively. Survey information was used to develop a profile of the individuals and organizations using the newsletter. Original position descriptions on which the briefer newsletter listings were based were used to develop a profile of the industry segment, degree and/or experience requirements, geographic location, and starting salaries and benefits of positions listed from January 1993 to December 1994. While the newsletter generated contact between prospective employees and employers, only 20% of the prospective employees received job offers by responding to newsletter listings. The newsletter was valued more by individual recipients as a job search tool than by institutional recipients or private industry as a recruitment tool. Starting salaries of listed positions were comparable to those previously reported in industry and academic surveys. Foreign language skills and previous work experience were requested more frequently than above-minimum (typically 2.00) grade point averages or completion of government or industry certification programs. Landscape-related disciplines constituted most BS or BA positions listed, whereas advanced degree positions were distributed more evenly over horticulture-related disciplines. Data supported the inclusion of internship programs and foreign language requirements in horticulture curricula.
Erin J. Yafuso, Paul R. Fisher, Ana C. Bohórquez and James E. Altland
using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by PROC GLIMMIX with fixed effects of the three substrates and two methods (gravimetric or CT) at α = 0.05 in SAS. Spatial distribution of water and air content within each cell was quantified by sectioning
Ruby Valdez-Ojeda, José Luis Hernández-Stefanoni, Margarita Aguilar-Espinosa, Renata Rivera-Madrid, Rodomiro Ortiz and Carlos F. Quiros
polymorphic fragments from two individuals with contrasting traits, for example, large and dehiscent capsules with high bixin content or short and indehiscent capsules with low bixin content. Twelve primer combinations were selected for SRAP analysis ( Table
Vlasta Cunja, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Franci Stampar and Valentina Schmitzer
(Bedford, MA). Statistical analysis. The results were analyzed using Statgraphics Plus 4.0 (Manugistics, Rockville, MD) program using one-way analysis of variance. Differences in phenolic content between species/cultivars were estimated with Duncan