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A survey of wholesale nurseries in the United States was conducted in 1999, with 169 of the 806 nurseries surveyed responding from the state of California. The survey, consisting of 29 questions related to production practices, products, sales, and marketing, was sent to a random group of nurseries. Based on these results, over 50% of the new nursery businesses in California have been established within the last two decades. While most of the nurseries have computerized business practices, only 21% have implemented the use of computers or other automation in their production practices. Horticulturally, containerized plant production (80% of the industry) is still the primary method of growing and shipping plants in California, and most (90%) of these products are sold within the state. Nevada, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and Texas are the primary destinations for plant material that is exported out of state. The factors that nursery owners feel influence sales the most include market demand, weather unpredictability, and water supply, while governmental and environmental regulations are perceived to have the least impact. The factors that influence product price include cost of production, market demand, and product uniqueness.

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not been studied for vegetative annual crops grown as small containerized garden plants. Vegetative annuals in these containers are shipped and handled much the same as potted flowering plants. For long-distance shipping, they are packed into boxes at

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increase container density in the greenhouse and during shipping ( Whipker et al., 2011 ). Chemical plant growth retardants (PGRs) are commonly used to control containerized floriculture crop growth ( Nelson, 2012 ). However, no PGRs are currently labeled

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from being applied. Treatments. Two experiments were conducted, in Fall 2010 (3 Sept. to 29 Oct.) and in Spring 2011 (25 Jan. to 11 May) using similar greenhouse production and simulated shipping practices but with two different irrigation regimens

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found trees, palms (Arecaceae), woody ornamentals, groundcovers, and bedding plants who are only selling locally have been hard hit. Their containerized plants have become overgrown and cannot be sold even at “fire sale” prices. Some failing nurseries

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effectively increases the quality and shelf life of a number of containerized vegetative annuals ( Beach et al., 2009 ). Although this production practice enhances the value of many floriculture crops under standard shipping and retailing conditions, there is

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times by truck or air to long distance containerized shipping by ocean and requiring several weeks of good quality retention. Initial test runs by industry identified that understanding of cooling at a more detailed level had become necessary. Cooling of

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and shipped immediately to other states where they are planted in containers and forced to flowering for nationwide marketing. Although precautions are taken, significant plant moisture loss has been observed to occur during digging, shipping, and

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Vegetable transplants grown for commercial producers need an ideal size to minimize damage during shipping and transplanting operations and to enable successful establishment in the field ( Agehara and Leskovar, 2015 ). However, vegetable

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Root substrates (substrates) are commonly used in the production of containerized greenhouse and nursery crops ( Nelson, 2003 ). Substrates are formulated from various inorganic and organic components to provide suitable physical and chemical

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