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Karla M. Addesso, Anthony L. Witcher, and Donna C. Fare

container production of trees, we identified three questions of interest related to production practices. These questions address canopy size effects, timing of incorporation of sachets into the current production cycle, and differences of microclimate in

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Carolyn F. Scagel, Richard P. Regan, Rita Hummel, and Guihong Bi

Winter injury to container- and field-grown trees and shrubs is often observed in nursery grown plants in Oregon and other states in the Pacific northwestern United States (PNW). Severe freeze events occur only periodically in the PNW; however

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Daniel C. Milbocker

Pyrus calleryana, Decne, `Aristocrat'; Cryptomeria japonica, D. Don; Populus maximowiczii, Henry × `Androscoggin' and Koelreuteria bipinnata, Franch. trees were grown in low-profile containers. The optimum height and width of these containers was 20 to 30 cm and 84 cm, respectively. Pine bark and mixtures containing 50% or more of pine bark were preferable to mixtures containing leaf mold for filling the containers because the former weigh less. Roots penetrated pine bark mixtures better than sphagnum peat mixtures and also retained their shape better during transplanting. When grown in low-profile containers, trees grew fibrous root systems; after transplanting, roots grew downwardly radial and trees were able to withstand extremely difficult landscape conditions.

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David W. Burger, Pavel Svihra, and Richard Harris

Treeshelters were used for the nursery production of Cedrus deodara Loud. (deodar cedar), Quercus ilex L. (holly oak), and Magnolia grandiflora L. (southern magnolia) trees growing in 19-liter containers. Air temperature, relative humidity, and CO, concentration were higher inside the treeshelters than outside. Trees grown inside treeshelters were 74% to 174% taller than trees grown without shelters. Trunk caliper of Magnolia and Quercus was not affected, however, for Cedrus trees caliper was larger for trees grown without a shelter. Upon removal of the shelter, Cedrus trees were incapable of supporting their own weight. Lateral branch development was inhibited and leaf senescence was greater with Magnolia trees grown in a shelter. Quercus trees grown in shelters were ready to be transplanted into the landscape. Water use was similar for trees grown with or without shelters. Trees grown in shelters had lower root fresh weights.

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Nazim Gruda

.L. 2006 Processed whole pine trees as a substrate for container-grown plants Proc. Southern Nursery Assn. Res. Conf. 51 59 61 Fain, G.B. Gilliam, C.H. Sibley, J.L. Boyer, C.R. 2008 Wholetree

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Timothy M. Spann and Holly A. Little

stress. Thus, it is important to distinguish between moderate and severe drought stress when assessing physiological responses. In Florida, citrus nursery trees are primarily produced in 2.65 L (10 cm × 10 cm × 34.3 cm) containers commonly referred to as

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Daniel K. Struve

A method is described for producing bare-root shade tree whips in containers. Whip production is begun in February in heated greenhouses by sowing seed. Seedlings are transplanted to copper-treated containers and grown in a greenhouse until May, when they are moved outdoors and transplanted to No. 3 copper-treated containers. In October (8 months after seeding), plant heights range from 1 to 2 m. Several media have been developed that result in rapid growth, while separating readily from the root system by hand-shaking. Bare-root plants placed in refrigerated storage for 6 months and repotted, retained high survival and regrowth potential. The system combines the handling ease of bare-root stock with the high survival and regrowth potential of container stock.

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Richard C. Beeson Jr.

Pulsing consists of applying subvolumes of a normal daily irrigation volume several times per day. Previous studies have shown splitting overhead irrigation into two subapplications increased growth of container-grown landscape ornamentals in the southeastern U.S. In Florida, water restrictions prohibit overhead irrigation during the critical mid-afternoon when irrigation is most beneficial. Using individual microirrigation spray stakes, only 25% of the water required for overhead irrigation per bed area was necessary to produce similar plants if irrigated once per day. When the same daily volume was pulsed as 2 or 3 subvolumes, tree growth was significantly increased. Data suggest 2 pulses are sufficient for trees with a xeric nature while mesic trees prefer 3 pulses per day. Root:shoot ratios were unchanged by pulsing. Lower cumulative diurnal water stress was measured on pulsed trees.

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D.C. Ferree, J.G. Streeter, and Y. Yuncong

Container-grown apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees were exposed to soil compaction created by changing soil bulk density (SBD) to determine the effect of compaction levels, rootstock, and moisture stress on mineral nutrition, leaf gas exchange, and foliar carbohydrate levels. With SBD of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 g·cm-3, there was no interaction of rootstock and soil compaction for growth of `Melrose' trees on nine rootstocks. Trees grown in a SBD of 1.2 g·cm-3 had a greater dry weight than trees at 1.4 g·cm-3 bulk density. Increasing SBD to 1.5 g·cm-3 reduced shoot length, total leaf area, leaf size, and dry weight of leaves, shoots, and roots. The interaction between rootstock and SBD was significant and total dry weight of `B.9', `G.16', `G.30', and `M.7 EMLA' was less influenced by 1.5 g·cm-3 soil than trees on `M.26 EMLA' and `MM.106 EMLA'. Withholding moisture for 10 days at the end of a 70-day experiment caused 8% to 25% reduction in growth in a non-compacted (1.0 g·cm-3) soil with much less effect in a compacted soil. Prior to imposing the moisture stress by withholding water, net photosynthesis (Pn) was reduced 13% and transpiration (E) 19% by increasing bulk density to 1.5 g·cm-3. Following 7 days of moisture stress in non-compacted soil, Pn and E were reduced 49% and 36%, respectively, with no such reductions in the compacted soil. Increasing SBD to 1.5 g·cm-3 caused a decrease in the leaf concentration of quinic acid, myoinositol, and sucrose and an increase in fructose and glucose. Trees growing in 1.5 g·cm-3 had reduced concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn, and increased P, K, B, and Fe in leaves.

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Pedro García-Caparrós, Alfonso Llanderal, Ahmed El-Tarawy, John Majsztrik, and María Teresa Lao

at the University of Almeria, Spain (lat. 36°49′N, long. 2°24′W). Rooted 0.2-L plugs of kneeholy and confetti tree were obtained from a local nursery. Both species were transplanted into 1.5-L polyethylene containers (one plant per container