those producers target a specific yield (4.5–6.2 t·ha −1 ) across diverse vineyards rather than using canopy to yield metrics to ensure quality ( Uzes and Skinkis, 2016 ). Yield was generally not a better predictor of berry composition than crop load
Alison L. Reeve, Patricia A. Skinkis, Amanda J. Vance, Katherine R. McLaughlin, Elizabeth Tomasino, Jungmin Lee, and Julie M. Tarara
Mariateresa Cardarelli, Youssef Rouphael, Delia Muntean, and Giuseppe Colla
effect of increasing levels of nitrate in the nutrient solution on plant growth, quality, SPAD index, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigments, mineral composition, and NUE in five ornamental cabbage cultivars (Coral Prince, Coral Queen, Glamour Red
V.H. Escalona, F. Artés-Hernández, and F. Artés
Freshly harvested bulbs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce) `Clio' were sliced at 5 °C, dipped in 100 mg·L–1 NaOCl solution, and packaged in passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) by using trays covered and thermal sealed with unperforated or perforated polypropylene film. According to common commercial needs a shelf life of 14 d at 0 and 5 °C was applied. The respiration rate of fresh-cut fennel was 1.3- to 1.7-fold higher at 5 °C than at 0 °C, and was 1.4- to 1.8-fold higher than that reported for whole bulbs. MAP did not prevent the declines in SSC and TA that occurred during storage, while pH did not change. Water loss was lower than 0.1% in all treatments, and no decay or physiological disorders developed during storage. The gas compositions of 16 to 18 kPa O2 plus 2 to 4 kPa CO2 generated within the perforated packages at 0 and 5 °C or 1.5 to 2 kPa O2 plus 18 to 20 kPa CO2 in unperforated packages at 5 °C did not inhibit browning on the cut surface or other sensory changes of the slices. However, atmospheres in unperforated packages of 4 to 6 kPa O2 plus 10 to 14 kPa CO2 at 0 °C maintained the sensory quality like at harvest.
James B. Magee
The southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium, mostly corymbosum) cultivars Jubilee, Pearl River, and Magnolia and the rabbiteye cultivars Climax and Premier were stored for 4 weeks at 1-2 °C. Berries were held in pint “clam shell” plastic retail units and were evaluated weekly for physical and compositional quality. As groups, the rabbiteyes were higher in SSC, SSC/TA, glucose and fructose, anthocyanins, and malic, quinic, and succinic acids. `Jubilee' was the southern highbush and `Climax' the rabbiteye least affected by the storage. `Pearl River' and `Magnolia' were less firm and more shriveled than the other cultivars. `Magnolia' had the highest incidence of decay; decay was slight overall.
Youngjae Shin, Jackie F. Nock, Rui Hai Liu, and Christopher B. Watkins
The New York strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) industry is focused on sale of relatively short term storage cultivars that are ripe at harvest. Although storage of harvested fruit at low temperatures is generally recommended, growers have reported reduced fruit quality in the market after low temperature storage. Therefore we have explored the potential for using intermediate temperatures for strawberry storage. Physical qualities and antioxidant composition of the Jewel cultivar stored in 75%, 85%, or 95% RH at 0.5, 10, and 20 °C for 4 days have been studied. Overall quality declined more rapidly at 20 °C, especially at 95% RH, than at 10 °C and 0.5 °C. There was little change in weight loss at 0.5, 10, and 20 °C for 2 days but it increased at the lowest RH at 10 °C and increased rapidly from day 3 at 20 °C in lower RHs. Firmness was maintained, or even increased, at 0.5 or 10 °C than 20 °C, but soluble solids concentrations were lower at higher than lower storage temperatures. Red color development and anthocyanin concentrations were controlled more at 0.5 or 10 °C than at 20 °C. Total phenolic compounds were higher at 20 °C than at other temperatures at all RHs. The total antioxidant capacity of berries was higher at 10 °C than at 0.5 or 20 °C. However, total ascorbic acid concentrations, flavonoid contents, and were not affected by RH and temperature. In conclusion, while the best temperature for long term storage is 0.5 °C, quality can be maintained at 10 °C for acceptable periods of time. High RH environments increase the loss of quality at higher storage temperatures. Higher storage temperatures may cause faster ripening and accumulation of antioxidant compounds, but marketable quality of the fruit may be reduced.
Giuliana Mulas and Lyle E. Craker
Variation in light quality is known to modify plant morphology, growth, and chemical constituency in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on growth and essential oil composition in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was investigated by comparing plants receiving supplemental red (660 nm) and far-red (730 nm) with each other and with control plants not receiving supplemental light. Except for the supplemental light treatments, all plants were grown under natural light conditions in a greenhouse and received full daylight, averaging 9.23 h/day during the study. The red and far-red light treatments, given as day extensions, started daily 15 min before sunset and continued for 4 h each evening for 4 weeks. No significant differences were observed in biomass yield from the different light treatments, but far-red light caused elongation of internodes and a reduction in the number of leaves in comparison with control and red-light treated plants. Essential oil production was highest in plants grown under far-red light treatments.
Ossama Kodad, José M. Alonso, María T. Espiau, Gloria Estopañán, Teresa Juan, and Rafel Socias i Company
kernels with high-quality attributes, because the best end use for each cultivar is a function of its chemical composition ( Berger, 1969 ) and of the consumers' trend for foods without synthetic additives ( Krings and Berger, 2001 ). Thus, the CITA almond
Yi-Lu Jiang, Tzong-Shyan Lin, Ching-Lung Lee, Chung-Ruey Yen, and Wen-Ju Yang
flowering phenology and canopy composition of yellow pitaya in subtropical Taiwan. We detailed the relative position where the floral buds emerged on shoots at different ages within the canopy. The fruit size and quality of different seasons were also
Guiseppe Colla, Youssef Roupahel, Mariateresa Cardarelli, and Elvira Rea
A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine growth, yield, fruit quality, gas exchange and mineral composition of watermelon plants (Citrullus Lanatus L. `Tex'), either ungrafted or grafted onto two commercial rootstocks `Macis' [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and `Ercole' (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) and cultured in NFT. Plants were supplied with a nutrient solution having an electrical conductivity (EC) of 2.0 or 5.2 dS·m–1. The saline nutrient solution had the same basic composition, plus an additional of 29 mm of NaCl. Increased salinity in the nutrient solution decreased total yield. The reduction in total yield in saline treatments compared to control was due to a reduction in the fruit mean mass and not to the number of fruit per plant. Total fruit yield was 81% higher in grafted than in ungrafted plants. The lowest marketable yield recorded on ungrafted plants was associated with a reduction in both fruit mean mass and the number of fruits per plant in comparison to grafted plants. Salinity improved fruit quality in all grafting combinations by increasing dry matter (DM), glucose, fructose, sucrose, and total soluble solid (TSS) content. Nutritional qualities of grafted watermelons such as fruit DM, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and TSS content were similar in comparison to those of ungrafted plant. In all grafting combinations, negative correlations were recorded between Na+ and Cl– in the leaf tissue and net assimilation of CO2 Grafting reduced concentrations of sodium, but not chloride, in leaves. However, the sensitivity to salinity was similar between grafted and ungrafted plants and the higher total yield from grafting plants was mainly due to grafting per se.
George Ouma and Frank Matta
Experiments were performed to determine the effect of Accel and carbaryl on the fruit set, yield, quality, and leaf mineral composition of three apples cultivars: `Empire', `Jon-A-Red', and `Braeburn'. The treatments used were Accel at 25, 50, and 75 ppm; carbaryl at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%. There were significant increases in length: diameter ratio, weight of fruit per tree, pH, and percent red color. Mean fruit weight, percent N, K, and Mg as the rates of Accel and carbaryl increased. Sugar content in the fruit and the levels of P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the leaves were not affected. We conclude that the increased fruit weights were due to increased cell numbers and the few fruit that remained after thinning, thereby leading to increased amounts of assimilates directed to the developing fruit. The increase in percent red color is indicative of the effect of the treatments on the degree of ripening.