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the main directions of many researchers and breeding workers ( Li et al., 2005 ; Zhang et al., 2019 , 2022 ). The exploration and explanation of the coloring mechanism of double-color flowers in plants plays a key role in breeding this color

Open Access

Synthetic hair coloring products are widely used and are known to cause problems such as breakage of hair stands, loss of hair, dry scalp, risk of cancer ( Zheng et al., 2002 ), allergic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic effects ( Thun et al., 1994

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Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the primary anthocyanin in red `Tsugaru' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The concentration of cyanidin 3-galactoside in the skin decreased from 20 to 62 days after full bloom (DAFB), then increased rapidly after 104 DAFB. Small amounts of cyanidin 3-arabinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside were detected at 122 and 133 DAFB (harvest). The expression of five anthocyanin biosynthetic genes of chalcone synthase (MdCHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (MdF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (pDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (MdANS), and UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (pUFGluT) was examined in the skin of red and nonred apples. In general, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in red apples was strong in juvenile and ripening stages. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS was observed before ripening stage when anthocyanin was not detected. In contrast, the expression of pUFGluT was detected in the development stage only when anthocyanin was detected. However, the expression of all five genes was observed at 20 DAFB in fruit bagged after fertilization, and anthocyanin was not detected. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS, excluding pUFGluT, was detected at 98 DAFB in fruit bagged after 30 DAFB, and anthocyanin was not detected. These results suggest that pUFGluT may be closely related to the anthocyanin expression in apple skin at the ripening stage.

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constant weights. To quantify the quality of plants, photos of shoots for both species were taken from above at the end of production and postproduction to determine the shoot coloring percentage (the percentage of the shoot covered by flowers). To

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Merging new orchard designs with an efficient rootstock and high-coloring strain of an apple cultivar can result in production of higher yield with better fruit quality ( Fallahi et al., 2011 ; Marini et al., 2008 ; Veberic et al., 2007

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: petal fall, early green, late green, fruit coloring, 10% blue, 25% blue, and 75% blue ( Table 1 ). The percentage of blue was approximated and represented the proportion of berries that turned blue in the entire field on a given day. At each stage

Open Access

excessively inhibiting coloring. Materials and Methods Plant material and growing conditions. The experiments were conducted on mature own-rooted ‘Flame Seedless’ vines at the Kearney Agricultural Center (KAC), Parlier, CA (2005) or in a

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for 2 weeks from the water deficit treatments during the early green (EG), late-green or late-green to fruit coloring (LG/LG–FC), or fruit coloring to blue (FC–B) stages of fruit development. Measurements. The plants began flowering in mid to late

Open Access

Abstract

Pimiento peppers from all ethephon treatments had a faster rate and a higher percentage of coloring than peppers receiving the ethylene treatment or the control. The completely green peppers, however, did not color to an acceptable commercial grade within 96 hr.

Ethephon induced a climacteric in the respiration of the treated detached peppers that was not present in the control fruits, indicating that metabolism was affected as the coloring rate was increased.

Open Access