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). Digital image analysis also provides the ability to quantify coloration of the leaves, which can improve understanding of changes in variegation ( Kwack et al., 1998 ). CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) value is the most complete color space specified by the Commission

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coloration ( Ban et al., 2007 ; Espley et al., 2007 ; Takos et al., 2006 ). A recent study also showed that MYB110a, a paralog of MYB10, is associated with a red-flesh cortex phenotype in apple, and that MYB10 and MYB110a have conserved functions in

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coloration is affected by multiple factors such as pigment content and distribution in petals, the pH and metal ions of the pigmented cell sap, and petal epidermal cell structure ( Dao et al., 2016 ; Jin et al., 2016 ; Li et al., 2014 ; Mol et al., 1998

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fertilization concentrations to beneficially enhance pigmentation of ornamental species. Although anthocyanins are the most common red pigment found in plants, betalains are a class of tyrosine-derived pigments that also provide red coloration ( Lev-Yadun and

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with short-wavelength light, such as ultraviolet A (UVA; 315–399 nm) and blue (B; 400–499 nm), can affect plant traits such as extension growth, nutritional quality, and leaf coloration. At least a moderate intensity of B light typically suppresses

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Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, is a potential chemical to prevent preharvest fruit drop and improve storage quality of apples. Since ethylene promotes anthocyanin synthesis, effects of AVG on fruit coloration is a concern of fruit growers. `Delicious' apple trees were treated with 250 ppm AVG on 6 and 26 Aug. and 15 Sept., respectively. Fruit were harvested for analysis on 5 Oct. The anthocyanin accumulation and chlorophyll degradation in treated fruit were significantly lower when AVG was applied in August, which resulted in a low percentage of red fruit compared with the control. However, AVG did not inhibit anthocyanin synthesis and chlorophyll degradation when applied on 15 Sept. UDPGalactose: flavonoid-3-o-glycosyl-transferase activity also was reduced by AVG treatment in August, but not in September.

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The fruits of Cucurbita pepo cv. Table Queen are light green when young, turn dark green by intermediate age (15-18 days past anthesis) and remain dark green through maturity. Three major genes are known to affect developmental fruit color intensity in C. pepo: D, 1-1, and 1-2. Table Queen was crossed with cv. Vegetable Spaghetti and with tester stocks of known genotype in order to determine the genetic basis of its developmental fruit coloration. The results from filial, backcross. and testcross generations suggest that Table Queen carries gene D, which confers dark stem and fruit color from intermediate fruit age through maturity. Table Queen also carries L-2. which confers Light Type 2 (a pattern of grayish green hue) fruit color from intermediate age, but D is epistatic to L-2. The genotype of Table Queen is D/D 1-1/1-1 L-2/L-2. Clear-cut results were not obtained -- regarding the genetic basis of the retention of green color through maturity of Table Queen fruits.

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Post harvest screening of compounds that might influence coloration of apples was done in the laboratory. A number of carbonates such as glycol carbonate and carbonate buffers increased anthocyanin development. Certain compounds that were phytotoxic increased coloration. Other compounds such as chloro-IPC, quercetin, and sym-dimethyl diphenylurea decreased coloration. Diuron decreased coloration at relatively high concentrations and increased it at 10 ppm. The possible side effects of this compound are not yet known. Monuron at 10 ppm also increased coloration.

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al., 1997 ; Papafotiou et al., 2001a , b , 2004 , 2005 ; Wang and Blessington, 1990 ). In experiments on plants with red-colored leaves or bracts (e.g., poinsettia), an increase of the red coloration was observed when grown in substrates that

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Acer truncatum trees, 8-11 years old were irrigated three times during the summer, and autumn leaf coloration was compared with unirrigated trees. The irrigated trees colored significantly better, and the coloring period occurred 4-5 days later than the unirrigated trees. Irrigation had no effect on the length of the period of coloration or on the average color of the leaves.

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