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AVG applied alone to `Gala' and `Jonagold' apples delayed maturity and the onset of the ethylene climacteric and delayed red color development. AVG followed by ethephon delayed maturity and the onset of the ethylene climacteric, but promoted red color development of both cultivars. Ethephon applied alone advanced maturity, ethylene production, ripening, and red color development compared to AVG alone. In other studies, the ripening-related effects of these treatments were reflected in the storability of fruit in CA storage. AVG - and AVG + ethephon-treated fruit were still at preclimacteric ethylene levels after 6 months in CA storage, with excellent retention of flesh firmness and shelf-life, while ethephon and control fruits had significantly higher ethylene levels and softened more during storage and shelf-life evaluation. Collectively, our results indicate that an ethephon application following AVG treatment may be useful to overcome the delay of red color development of apples treated with AVG only and that this can be achieved without overly stimulating fruit ripening. Thus, a once-over harvest of `Gala' and `Jonagold' apples may be achieved with a significant reduction in harvest costs. We attribute the promotion of red color development of apples receiving AVG treatment with a follow-up application of ethephon to the action of ethylene temporally-released from ethephon stimulating the development of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, while AVG inhibits the development of the endogenous ethylene climacteric. Inhibiting endogenous ethylene production delays fruit from producing their own ethylene. We attribute maturation uniformity to the action of AVG allowing the less mature fruits to gain maturity while slowing maturity development of the more mature fruits. Improved storability of AVG + ethephon-treated fruit is attributed to the same ethylene-related phenomena.

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According to brain-based learning theory, learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat. Effective learning occurs when students are immersed in the educational experience, challenged yet not threatened, and encouraged to actively process information. All of these components are part of simulation or role-play games. With these basic concepts in mind, we approached the challenge of enhancing student learning in a plant identification course taught in a large class setting. Considering that plant identification requires some basic detective skills, and the popularity of criminal investigation television programming, we designed a role-play exercise involving case files, investigation zones, and detective teams. As a spin-off from the television shows “CSI: Crime Scene Investigation” and “CSI: Miami,” the exercise was coined “CSI: Manhattan, Conifer Site Investigation in Manhattan, Kansas.” It was designed to fit into a 50-minute class period. Throughout the exercise, detective teams (students) needed to collectively locate and identify plants based on previous knowledge and clues within the case files and at the sites. Upon completion, plant specimens were checked in and identification logs discussed in order to provide immediate feedback and reinforcement of learning. Students enjoyed the exercise, offering positive feedback and conversations about the exercise throughout the balance of the semester. Six months later, while walking past one of the investigation sites, students remembered the site, exercises performed, and the plant name. The exercise includes both interactive and experiential learning components. This session will discuss the “CSI” exercise and its value in linking action to information.

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The absence of endo-α-1,4-d-galacturonanase (PG, EC 3.2.1.15) in some fruits and the molecular suppression of PG in tomato fruit have collectively provided evidence that this protein is neither required nor sufficient to achieve normal softening in fleshy fruits. On the other hand, initial claims that down-regulation of PG was without effect on tomato softening were overstated. The influence of PG on softening does appear to be minimal during the initial stages of ripening, during which time changes in the locule tissues can significantly alter texture as monitored in whole fruit. Enzymes, including pectinmethylesterases, cellulases, rhamnogalacturonanase, and glycosidases may also play pivotal roles in softening. β-galactosidases have attracted much attention as potential determinants of fruit texture; however, conclusive evidence for this role is lacking, and increased levels of β-galatosidase (and net cell wall galactosyl residue loss) have been noted in senescing vegetative and floral organs as well as in fruit. Apoplastic pH, ionic activity, and composition are likely to contribute to tissue and wholeorgan texture through weakening of polymer aggregates and/or through modulation of cell wall enzyme activity. During the latter stages of ripening and overripening, the role of PG is apparent from the persistent structural integrity of fruit transformed with PG antisense constructs. Patterns of softening and deterioration in normal tomato fruit suggest that the catalytic activity of PG in vivo is initially queued and does not parallel the accumulation of PG protein. Developmental changes in membrane permeability, physical injury, and other stress conditions can alter the apoplastic environment, releasing constraints on PG action.

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Conventional methods to control the onion maggot or onion fly, Delia antiqua (Meigen), have relied on in-furrow applications of the toxicant pesticide, chlorpyrifos. The objective of this research was to develop an onion (Allium cepa L.) seed treatment that utilizes a new chemistry compound that is environmentally safe. Cyromazine is an insect growth regulator with a mode of action different from traditional pesticides used to control onion maggot. Cyromazine has low mammalian toxicity and is relatively nontoxic to other insects, including beneficials. High seed loading rates (50 g·kg-1 active ingredient) are required for optimal efficacy, and conventional slurry methods are inadequate to apply these high loading rates. Film coating and pelleting were performed at Cornell Univ. to apply cyromazine and a registered fungicide (a formulation of thiram and carboxin) to onion seeds. Results of field studies performed over several years revealed that stand losses due to the onion maggot ranged from ≈20% to 60%. Cyromazine applied by either film coating or pelleting decreased the loss by onion maggot from 1% to 8%, and efficacy was comparable to an in-furrow application of chlorpyrifos. Cyromazine was registered as a seed treatment and is commercially used in the northeastern and midwestern United States, where onion maggot is a serious pest. Field emergence was not negatively affected by cyromazine coated onto the seeds when onion seeds are sown in organic (muck) soils. There is other evidence, however, that cyromazine seed treatments may cause phytotoxicity to germination and seedling growth. Testing seed quality in sand or on roll towels revealed a high percentage of abnormal seedlings. Retarded root growth was observed in seeds treated with cyromazine, resulting in an increase in abnormal seedling classifications. A finely ground sphagnum peatmoss applied over the seeds in a roll towel test ameliorated the abnormal root growth symptoms, and seedlings had robust growth. Collectively, film coating and pelleting were effective delivery systems for the application of plant protectants required at time of sowing. Modification of the standard germination test was needed to accurately assess onion seed quality. Moreover, this project was successful due to a team effort of a university seed scientist and entomologists working with onion growers and industry. Future registrations on small acreage, high-value horticultural crops are envisioned to require similar multi-partner approaches. Chemical name used: N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (cyromazine).

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action and hot water treatment (collectively called recycling perlite) on medium electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium (Na) in a 30 × 96-ft (9.1 × 29.3-m) greenhouse in 2007, 2008, and 2009 at Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Bossier City

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or fertilizers.” Greenhouse crop producers will notice immediately that this action is almost impossible. The suggested solutions, such as the use of human or other recycled waste for plant nutrients and strict quarantine measures from pests, will

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.org website. Learning outcomes for the e-learning module include articulating what RRD is and how it spreads, listing RRD symptoms, differentiating between RRD and look-alike problems, creating an action plan if RRD is suspected, prioritizing actions taken to

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/manage effectively ( National Research Council, 2009 ). With respect to the various methods to assess program effectiveness, use of capstone experiences, collective portfolios, pre- and post-test evaluation, student satisfaction surveys, exit interviews, and alumni

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). The nematicide became also the focus of regulatory action in other countries ( Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, 2015 ). As a replacement, many golf course superintendents in California resorted to using products containing

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of true leaves had developed above the cotyledons. The seedling containers from each replication were maintained in the same shade structure, and collectively considered one replication. Beginning on the day that the seedlings were transplanted

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