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Laise S. Moreira and Matthew D. Clark

determine the best protocols for advancing the cold-hardy table grape cultivar development pipeline. The breeding program uses highly complex pedigrees with multiple Vitis species, including V. vinifera , V. riparia , V. labrusca , V. aestivalis , and

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Youn Young Hur, Su Jin Kim, Jeong Ho Roh, Kyo Sun Park, Hae Keun Yun, Jong Chul Nam, Sung Min Jung, Sang Uk Koh, Dong Jun Im, Dong Hoon Lee, Seo June Park, and Kyong Ho Chung

‘Shiny Star’ is a cold-hardy seedless table grape developed by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) grape breeding program in Korea. In recent years, table grapes from Chile and the United States have been increasingly imported to Korea. The

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Warren Lamboy, Christopher Alpha, Amy Szewc-McFadden, and Sharon Bleik

The cold-hardy Vitis (grape) collection at the USDA/ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, N.Y., comprises ≈1300 accessions. While much of the collection has been evaluated for morphological and viticultural traits, little of it has been well-characterized genetically. Lack of genetic information hampers the identification of accessions, the determination of genetic relationships among them, the evaluation of potential new accessions, and the construction of a core subset of the collection. Because simple sequence repeat DNA polymorphisms (SSRs or microsatellites) have already been proven to be useful genetic markers in Vitis vinifera (non-cold-hardy wine, raisin, and table grapes), our research focuses on the use of the markers both for the identification (“fingerprinting”) of species, hybrids, subspecies, cultivars (varieties), and accessions of cold-hardy Vitis, and for the determination of genetic relationships between these taxa. Our latest research results in this area will be presented.

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Philip L. Forsline, Warren F. Lamboy, James R. McFerson, and Cecil Stushnoff

107 POSTER SESSION (Abstr. 465–478) Stress–Cold Temperatures

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Krista Shellie, Jacob Cragin, and Marcelo Serpe

cultivars in February and March of both years and ‘Verdelho’ and ‘Touriga Brasileira’ were less cold hardy than ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ in March of both years. Fig. 1. Cold hardiness from Oct. 2011 to Mar. 2012 of wine grape cultivars grown in southwestern

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James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

Since the 1980s, there has been consistent progress in breeding and selection of cold-hardy, disease-resistant grape cultivars that are adapted to the cool, humid climates of the eastern and central United States. Many of these cultivars are based

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Markus Keller and Lynn J. Mills

grape production in northern latitudes. ‘Concord’ is generally cold hardy, especially in midwinter ( Ferguson et al., 2011 , 2014 ). Nevertheless, it can occasionally succumb to cold damage during the acclimation and deacclimation periods in the fall

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Danny L. Barney

During freezing studies of `Concord' grape (Vitis labrusca L.), bud viability significantly affected callus formation, adventitious root initiation, and root dry weight during regrowth assays conducted to assess freezing injury. Applying exogenous 1- H -indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) partially offset bud loss and stimulated root initiation. Further tests demonstrated that buds were less cold hardy than internode woody tissues in dormant `Concord' canes. Because of cold-hardiness differences between buds and wood and because bud viability affects callus formation, root initiation, and root dry weight, regrowth assays do not seem to be sensitive indicators of freezing injury in grape woody tissues. Regrowth assays, however, seem to be reliable indicators of overall viability for frozen `Concord' grape cuttings.

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, and Michelle Kirkland

Iowa was the sixth largest producer of grapes in the United States in the early 1900s, with 24,000 ha under production. The rapid expansion of petrochemicals post-World War II and grape's sensitivity to 2,4-D herbicides reduced vineyard size in Iowa to 28 ha in 2001. Recent state governmental support for organic fruit research and viticulture in general has led to the expansion of the grape and wine industry in Iowa. As of 2001, 5883 ha of organic grapes were produced in the United States. Challenges to organic grape production in the Midwest include diseases and weeds. The cultivation of American grape cultivars is essential in organic viticulture in the Midwest, including cultivars that are relatively cold hardy and disease tolerant. From 2003 to 2004, we experimented on-farm at Kirkland Vineyards, Norwalk, Iowa, with methods of organically approved weed management. Three replications of plots consisting of five vines each of `Marechal Foch' were laid out in 2003 in a completely randomized design in a 1-year-old vineyard. Treatments consisted of wood chips, wood chips plus vinegar herbicide (All-Down™, Summer Set Co., Chaska, Minn.), and mowing when weeds and groundcover reached 15 cm. Wood chips decreased weed load significantly over mowing alone, but wood chips plus vinegar herbicide provided the most control over 2 years of the experiment. There was a trend toward greater plant height in the wood chip treatment, but no significant differences in plant height were observed among treatments.

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Warren F. Lamboy and Christopher G. Alpha

Curators of plant genetic resources collections must preserve germplasm possessing known useful characteristics as well as material displaying general genetic diversity. In order to ensure that both types of germplasm are included in a collection, germplasm curators require three fundamental types of information about each accession: taxonomic identity, genetic identity, and genetic relationship. Because simple sequence repeat DNA fragments (SSRs) have been successfully used to determine the genetic identity of grape clones, we conducted a study to determine if SSRs would supply all three types of information for the accessions in the cold-hardy Vitis (grape) germplasm collection. SSR fragments were amplified at six different loci for 23 accessions of cold-hardy grape spanning the range of species diversity in the collection. The minimum number of different alleles found at a locus was 9; the maximum was 26. Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.565 and 0.783, while gene diversity values were in the range 0.785 to 0.944. Two hundred fifty-two pairs of plants out of a possible 253 could be distinguished by their SSR profiles. Nei's genetic identities were computed between all pairs of plants and used in a UPGMA cluster analysis. The relationships obtained did not correspond well to expected relationships based on geography and taxonomy. Four species of grapes were represented by two or more accessions in this study. No DNA fragments found at these six loci served to unambiguously distinguish one species from another. Thus, SSR fragments from the six loci studied were useful in determining genetic identity of accessions, but were not helpful in determining genetic relationships or taxonomic identities. We are searching for additional loci that are informative for these types of information. Meanwhile we highly recommend SSRs for determining genetic identity in germplasm resources collections.