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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han

zoysiagrass is lacking. Very few studies have been reported on antioxidant metabolism associated with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in zoysiagrass. Investigations concerning the physiological responses of zoysiagrass to cold acclimation treatment

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Kathryn Homa, William P. Barney, William P. Davis, Daniel Guerrero, Mary J. Berger, Jose L. Lopez, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

; Sun et al., 2011 ). The objectives of the following studies were to examine the effects of cold plasma treatment on F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici mycelium and inoculated sweet basil seedlings and seed to determine if atmospheric cold plasmas can

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Valeria Sigal Escalada and Douglas D. Archbold

; Halder-Doll and Bangerth, 1987 ; Mir et al., 1999 ; Stover et al., 2003 ). Heat treatment after harvest has shown potential for inhibiting ripening and extending cold storage life. In climacteric fruit, heat might act through its effect on enzymes

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Shu Hsien Hung, Chun Chi Wang, Sergei Veselinov Ivanov, Vera Alexieva, and Chih Wen Yu

., 1999 ). It was reported that transient increases in (Ca 2+ ) cyt levels could be evoked by cold treatment in arabidopsis [ Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.] ( Knight et al., 1996 ; Lewis et al., 1997 ; Polisensky and Braam, 1996 ; Sung et al., 2003

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Stephen Patrick Greer and Timothy A. Rinehart

70%, until their use in experiments. Cold treatment, chemical treatment, and sterilization of seed. Seed used in experimental studies were first aliquoted into polypropylene microtubes and cold-treated at 4 °C for 6 weeks under dry conditions

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Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

To determine the flowering requirements of Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldsturm', plants were grown under 9-hour photoperiods until maturity, then forced at 20 °C under one of seven photoperiods following 0 or 15 weeks of 5 °C. Photoperiods consisted of a 9-hour day that was extended with incandescent lamps to 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, or 24 hours; an additional treatment was a 9-hour day with a 4-hour night interruption (NI). Noncooled `Goldsturm' remained vegetative under photoperiods ≤13 hours, and essentially all plants flowered under photoperiods ≥14 hours or with a 4-hour NI. Flowering percentages for cooled plants were 6, 56, or ≥84 under 10-, 12-, or ≥13-hour daylengths and NI, respectively. Critical photoperiods were ≈14 or 13 hours for noncooled or cooled plants, respectively, and base photoperiods shifted from 13 to 14 hours before cold treatment to 10 to 12 hours following cold treatment. Within cold treatments, plants under photoperiods ≥14 hours or NI reached visible inflorescence and flowered at the same time and developed the same number of inflorescences. Fifteen weeks of cold hastened flowering by 25 to 30 days and reduced nodes developed before the first inflorescence by 28% to 37%. Cold treatment provided little or no improvement in other measured characteristics, such as flowering percentage and uniformity, flower number, plant height, and vigor.

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P.A. O`Connor and S.S. Korban

Established shoot cultures of three apple genotypes, `Dayton', `McIntosh', and `Golden Delicious' were subcultured into culture tubes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a dark chamber at 1.0±0.5°C for periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Following each cold storage period, culture tubes of each of the three genotypes were transferred to a growth room and maintained under 16 h of light (60 uEs-1m-2) and 21°C. The overall morphological condition of each shoot was then recorded. After 4 weeks of growth, both number and length (in cm) of proliferating shoots were recorded. In general, shoots subjected to 3 or 6 months of cold storage remained green however most cultures did not initiate any new shoots. Cultures subjected to 9 or 12 months of cold treatment were etiolated however new axillary shoots were observed. The proliferation rate after 4 weeks of growth under standard growth conditions were variable among the different genotypes. The implications of using long term cold storage of apple shoot cultures will be discussed.

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P.A. O`Connor and S.S. Korban

Established shoot cultures of three apple genotypes, `Dayton', `McIntosh', and `Golden Delicious' were subcultured into culture tubes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a dark chamber at 1.0±0.5°C for periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Following each cold storage period, culture tubes of each of the three genotypes were transferred to a growth room and maintained under 16 h of light (60 uEs-1m-2) and 21°C. The overall morphological condition of each shoot was then recorded. After 4 weeks of growth, both number and length (in cm) of proliferating shoots were recorded. In general, shoots subjected to 3 or 6 months of cold storage remained green however most cultures did not initiate any new shoots. Cultures subjected to 9 or 12 months of cold treatment were etiolated however new axillary shoots were observed. The proliferation rate after 4 weeks of growth under standard growth conditions were variable among the different genotypes. The implications of using long term cold storage of apple shoot cultures will be discussed.

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W.R. Miller and R.E. McDonald

Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) must be treated with an approved insect quarantine procedure such as cold treatment before shipment to certain markets. Condition and quality of mature-green (MG) and slightly yellow (SY) fruit were determined after they were: 1) treated with ethylene at 0.1 ml·L-1 for 48 hours (C2H4), 2) subjected to cold treatment (CT) at 1 °C for 15 days, and 3) held in storage at 5 °C for 7 days plus 3 days at 15 °C. Ethylene-treated fruit were softer and yellowness was enhanced compared with non-C2H4-treated fruit. MG fruit were firmer and lost more mass following CT and storage than SY fruit. C2H4 treatment increased the severity of peel scald, stem-end breakdown (SEB), and fin browning but had no effect on pitting. CT increased the severity of scald and pitting, and the severity of SEB, but did not affect fin browning. Peel scald, pitting, SEB, and fin browning were more severe in MG than in SY fruit at the final evaluation. C2H4-treated fruit had lower total soluble solids concentration, higher titratable acidity and pH, and a less preferred flavor and texture than control fruit. We conclude that carambola fruit should be selected at harvest at the slight-yellow stage (3% to 25% of surface area) instead of at the mature-green stage. Fruit to be cold-stored should not be C2H4 treated due to enhanced mold development and severity of SEB.

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E.W. Stover, T.E. Paine, and W.C. Stiles

Damage to xylem subtending apple buds is often observed following very low winter temperatures. Reports suggest that prebloom application of boron, zinc, and urea facilitate recovery. Prebloom nutrient treatments were applied to `McIntosh' and `Empire' at three sites in Spring 1994. The following treatments were applied to drip at half-inch green: boron (22.8 mM, solubor); Zn-EDTA (0.75 mM); boron and Zn-EDTA; boron, Zn-EDTA, and urea (59.4 mM). Another treatment used boron and Zn-EDTA at half-inch green, followed by boron, Zn-EDTA, and urea at pink. Spur leaf area, fruit set, fruit size, and seed number were determined. There were no clear treatment effects at the warmest site (mid-winter low –32C); however, this orchard was more variable than other treatment sites. The intermediate site (mid-winter low –37C) had a strong trend of increasing fruit set in `Empire' and `McIntosh' as more nutrients were applied. The combined half-inch green and pink treatment significantly increased fruit set by 23.8% compared to the untreated control. At the coldest site (mid-winter low –42C), `Empire' again displayed a strong trend of increasing fruit set with additional nutrients. All treatments combining boron and zinc significantly increased fruit set. The combined half-inch green and pink treatment increased fruit set by 43%. At this site `McIntosh' did not respond to treatment. However, `McIntosh' trees had continued active growth into late Fall 1993 and sustained severe cold injury in November. Data suggest that, when they were effective, nutrient treatments resulted in increased retention of flower buds on damaged spurs.