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as a commercial ornamental plant in North America is limited, principally because of a lack of cold hardiness. Almost all of Australia corresponds to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) hardiness zone 9 or higher ( Dawson, 1991 ), and as a

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cold tolerance of S. americanus . Therefore, we investigated midwinter-hardiness and deacclimation patterns of populations of S. americanus from northern and southern locations within its natural distribution. Cold acclimation is the accrual of cold-hardiness

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birch ( Betula pubescens Ehrh.), were found to be modulated mainly by temperature and not photoperiod ( Welling et al., 2004 ). Maximum cold-hardiness in midwinter is affected by the plant's growth cycle and fall conditions, including temperatures and

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injury can reduce yields. Freeze tolerance, more generally referred to as “cold hardiness,” is measured by lethal temperature on specific plant tissues such as floral buds, xylem, or phloem. In fruit crops, freezing temperatures (<0 °C) can affect

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nature. Johnson (1947) commented briefly on the relative hardiness of some common Cistus in the United Kingdom after cold weather in Feb. 1947. Mulligan (1953) evaluated ≈18 species and cultivars of Cistus and × Halimiocistus in Seattle, WA, from

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, and high fruit quality ( Galletta and Ballington, 1996 ). Cold hardiness is the result of complex physiological mechanisms involving many cellular and whole plant details. Moreover, winterhardiness is affected not only by tolerance to cold but also by

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 al. 2020 ). As such, these perennial plants must experience cool enough winter temperatures to produce fruit in the following year ( Wenden et al. 2017 ). To survive these cold temperatures, sweet cherry trees undergo seasonal changes in cold hardiness

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Cold hardiness is the ability of a plant or plant organ to tolerate freezing or survive freezing conditions ( Fuchigami, 1996 ) without sustaining injury ( Lindén et al., 2002 ; Weiser, 1970 ), which is a major determinant of plant species growth

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study were: 1) to determine cold hardiness of seven commercial Iranian pomegranate cultivars in different stages of the hardening cycle, from fall through winter; and 2) to study changes in carbohydrates and proline contents during acclimation and

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. Cane samples were collected from the field trial site on the day of analysis. Data for phenology, yield, berry composition, cold injury ratings, and cold hardiness were analyzed using a linear mixed model analysis of variance (SAS version 8.02; SAS

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