Codling moth ( Cydia pomonella ) is a major insect pest of apple ( Malus domestica ) almost everywhere the fruit is grown. In Montana, frass-filled exit holes left by codling moth larva (strikes) were apparent on more than 50% of apple fruit in
Rachel Leisso, Bridgid Jarrett, Katrina Mendrey, and Zachariah Miller
J.D. Hansen, M.A. Watkins, M.L. Heidt, and P.A. Anderson
( Jimenez, 2004 ). After over 25 years of apple exports to Taiwan, live codling moth larvae were found for the first time in 2002, leading to a temporary ban on U.S. apples ( Fruit Growers News, 2002 ). To resume exports, the United States agreed to increase
Paul Randall, Peter Sholberg, Gary Judd, and Joan Cossentine
Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of pome fruits worldwide. This insect overwinters as a diapausing, fifth-instar larva located within a silken cocoon usually constructed in cracks or crevices of bark on
Michael J. Willett, Lisa Neven, and Charles E. Miller
(PRA) includes an assessment of whether the climate in the importing country is suitable for the species' establishment and spread. Codling moth (CM), a destructive fruit pest, is now found in most of the temperate fruit-growing regions of the world
James D. Hansen, Stephen R. Drake, Harold R. Moffitt, Dennis J. Albano, and Millie L. Heidt
A quarantine treatment was developed against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars ('Garnet,' `Brooks,' `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart') exported to Japan. Specific procedures were required to demonstrate treatment efficacy. Dose-mortality responses were measured for each cultivar at regularly incremented concentrations of methyl bromide for 2 hours at 43 °F (6 °C) compared to the dose-mortality curve of an approved cultivar under the same conditions. Based on the overlap of confidence limits, there were no significant differences between new and approved cultivars in group comparisons. In a confirmation test of efficacy, fumigation with methyl bromide at 0.064 oz/ft3 (64 g·m-3) for 2 hours at 43 °F resulted in complete mortality for all codling moth larvae in the treated cultivars. By convention, fumigation at this or the following concentrations [0.048 oz/ft3 (48 g·m-3) for 2 h at 54 to 63 °F (12 to 17 °C); 0.040 oz/ft3 (40 g·m-3) for 2 h at 63 to 72 °F (17 to 22 °C); 0.032 oz/ft3 (32 g·m-3) for 2 h at 72 °F (22 °C) or above] were considered as an efficacious quarantine treatment against the codling moth in sweet cherries. Except for `Brooks,' fumigation did not significantly influence fruit firmness, soluble solids, or titratable acids. Reduction in fruit and stem quality was more associated with temperature than with methyl bromide concentration. `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart' could be fumigated with minimal change in fruit quality.
J.D. Hansen, M.L. Heidt, M.A. Watkins, S.R. Drake, J. Tang, and S. Wang
Efficacy of using radio frequency (RF) at 27.12 MHz was evaluated as a postharvest quarantine treatment against fifth instars of the codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)], in apples (Malus sylvestris). Tests under the given conditions demonstrated that the energy fields between the RF unit's electrodes were neither predictable nor uniform. Moving fruit submerged in water during RF exposure may improve uniformity, but pulp temperatures varied considerably among fruit, among sites on the same fruit, and at different depths within the same site. As a result of these inconsistencies, quarantine efficacy was not obtained either using a range of final average temperatures from 40 to 68 °C (104.0 to 154.4 °F) or at holding times up to 20 minutes. We concluded it would be difficult to obtain the appropriate parameters for treatment efficacy and fruit quality maintenance using this technology under these conditions.
Abhava M. Dandekar, Gale H McGranahan, Sandra L. Uratsu, Charles Leslie, J. Steven Tebbets, and Patrick V. Vail
Insecticidal crystal protein fragments (ICPFs) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) encoded by cryIA(c) gene were shown in diet incorporation studies to be lethal to codling moth (CM; Cydia pomonella) the key insect pest for walnut. However transformed walnut tissues expressing cryIA(c) with Bt codon usage patterns and native DNA sequence revealed very low levels of expression in planta. To correct this problem synthetic versions of one of these genes, cryIA(c) was used to transform walnut tissue. A total of 61 individual transgenic embryo lines were obtained. 34% of these lines (21/61) were high expressors (“class A”) demonstrating 80 to 100% mortality of first in star CM larvae and displaying no further larval development. Twelve clones (20%) were designated “class B” and these showed a marked retardation of larval development and a mortality between 40 to 79%. Embryos from the remaining 28 lines designated “class C” (46%). although transformed, were indistinguishable from the control (untransformed embryos) and showed a mortality of 0 to 39%.
M.L. Gleason, M.K. Ali, P.A. Domoto, D.R. Lewis, and M.D. Duffy
Integrated peat management (IPM) strategies for control of apple scab and codling moth (Cydia pomonolla) were compared with a traditional protestant spray program in an Iowa apple orchard over a 3-year period. IPM tactics for scab included a postinfection spray program and an integrated, reduced-spray program based on the use of demethylation inhibitor fungicides. Codling moth spray timing was determined by pheromone-trap captures and degree-day models. The IPM tactics resulted in an average of three fewer fungicide sprays and two fewer insecticide sprays than the protestant program. Neither yield, incidence of fruit scab, nor incidence of codling moth injury on fruit was significantly different among the two IPM treatments and the protestant treatment. A no-fungicide treatment had significantly lower yield and greater scab incidence than the other treatments. A partial budget analysis indicated that the treatment using the postinfection strategy was more costly per acre than the protectant program for orchards <20 acres, about equivalent in cost for 20 acres, but leas costly for 40 acres. A treatment incorporating the integrated, reduced-spray strategy was less costly than either postinfection or protestant strategies at orchard sizes from 5 to 40 acres. Return (total revenue - cost for control of primary scab and codling moth) per acre for the IPM strategies was somewhat lower than for the protestant program.
J.E. Cossentine, P.L. Sholberg, L.B.J. Jensen, K.E. Bedford, and T.C. Shephard
Wooden fruit bins are a source of diapausing codling moth and postharvest pathogenic fungi. The redistribution of codling moths within bins is a problem where codling moth populations are being controlled by areawide codling moth sterile release programs, mating disruption programs, or both. Laboratory and fumigation chamber trials were carried out to determine the impact of relatively low levels of carbon dioxide on late-instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) and two postharvest fruit pathogens, Penicillium expansum Link ex Thom and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Fumigation of diapausing codling moth with 40% CO2 in laboratory trials resulted in over 60% mortality after only 6 days of exposure and mortality increased with time of exposure. Significant mortality (68%) of diapausing codling moth larvae occurred after 14 days of exposure in the laboratory to 13% CO2 and a mean of 88% mortality was recorded after fumigation for 20 days. A significant number of P. expansum (46%) spores failed to germinate after laboratory exposure to 13% CO2 for 12 and 18 days respectively. Close to 100% of the P. expansum spores failed to germinate by day 20. When diapausing codling moth larvae and spores from both plant pathogens were placed in wooden fruit bins and fumigated for 21 days at 13% CO2, 75% of the diapausing codling moths died and 80% of the P. expansum spores failed to germinate. No effect on B. cinerea was observed.
Robert E. Call and Jack W. Jenkins
Mating disruption of codling moth using codlemone pheromoneemitting twist-ties or cards has become a standard practice in many orchards. This study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of NoMate CM EC, a spray formulation of codlemone pheromone. Treatments were applied 20–21 Apr. 1995 to plots measuring 99 × 244 m of 15-year-old `Golden Delicious' apple trees on seedling rootstock. Trees were spaced 3.7 × 5.5 m and treatments were made in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Whole trees were sprayed to run-off using a handgun. Treatments were 20.2 g a.i. NoMate CM EC/h and a watered sprayed control. Two pheromonebaited, sticky traps were placed in each replicate to monitor codling moth activity. Moth counts were made 3 days after treatment and continued twice weekly for 4 weeks. Results indicated very little moth activity for the first 14 days of the study in plots treated with NoMate CM EC when compared to the control. However, after the first two weeks differences between treatments were not significant.