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Ugur Bilgili, F. Olcay Topac-Sagban, Irfan Surer, Nejla Caliskan, Pervin Uzun, and Esvet Acikgoz

yields with the exception of the SE × NS × NR interaction ( Table 4 ). Table 4. Results of variance analysis for turf color, turf quality, and clipping yields under seasons (SE), different nitrogen sources (NS), application time (AT), and nitrogen rates

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Robert C. Hansen, Kenneth D. Cochran, Harold M. Keener, and Edward M. Croom Jr.

A natural product known as taxol has been approved by the FDA for treatment of ovarian and breast cancers. In addition, preliminary clinical studies have shown encouraging results when using taxol to treat melanomas, lung, head, and neck cancers. Ornamental yews have been identified as a potential renewable source of taxol and related taxanes. Commercial nurseries were surveyed during Summer and Fall 1991 as a basis for estimating populations of Taxus cultivars currently growing in the United States. Clippings of selected cultivars were sampled from nursery fields in Ohio and Michigan to estimate expected clippings yields as a function of cultivar and cultivar age. More than 30 million Taxus plants were reported to be grown by the 19 major nurseries that responded to the survey. About 88% of all Taxus plants reported in the survey were grown in the three-state area of Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. Taxus × media `Densiformis', `Hicksii', and `Brownii' were found to be grown by nearly all nurseries in the survey; more than half grew T. × media `Wardii' and T. cuspidata `Capitata', while other well-known cultivars seem to have been specialties of one or two nurseries. Annual clippings yields on a dry-weight basis (db) ranged from ≈20 g/plant to 140 g/plant. Expected yields were found to be very dependent upon plant age and cultivar. Taxus × media `Hicksii' appeared to be the most ideal ornamental yew that could provide a renewable source of taxol because of immediate availability and potential for mechanical harvesting of upright clippings. An estimated 3000 to 4000 ovarian cancer patients could be treated annually with the taxol currently available for extraction from T. × media `Hicksii' clippings.

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Nathaniel A. Mitkowski and Arielle Chaves

that there were no substantial differences on clipping yield reduction or root depth reduction among the DMI fungicides tested under field conditions when applied to creeping bentgrass. Although no differences on rooting depth were observed in either

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Y.L. Qian, J.M. Fu, S.J. Wilhelm, D. Christensen, and A.J. Koski

Analysis System ( SAS Institute, 2006 ). Turf quality, leaf firing, clipping yield, root dry weight, and root activity of salinity treatment were then adjusted as if the control over the different time periods for each lines had the same value. Differences

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Bohan Liu and Peter J. Landschoot

based on relative clipping yields were 170 mg·kg −1 for Mehlich-1, 233 mg·kg −1 for Bray-1, and 280 mg·kg −1 for Mehlich-3. Two field seedling establishment experiments were conducted by Hamel and Heckman (2006) using the same soils as those in one

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Caitlin E. Splawski, Emilie E. Regnier, S. Kent Harrison, Mark A. Bennett, and James D. Metzger

soil), black plastic, woodchips, shredded newspaper, and shredded newspaper mixed with grass clippings (NP + grass). Pumpkin growth and yield. In 2011, pumpkin yields were low and variable due in part to low numbers of marketable fruits caused by a

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Glykeria Gogoula

OMC soil amendment effects on bermudagrass establishment and growth was performed through turf visual quality ratings, clipping yields, root growth, and vertical detachment force measurements. In addition, substrate properties were also evaluated and

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Edward J. Nangle, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, John R. Street, and T. Karl Danneberger

Gardner and Wherley (2005) . Three varieties of turfgrass were used: sheep’s fescue ( Festuca ovina L.), tall fescue [ Schedenorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub], and rough bluegrass ( Poa trivalis L.). Applications of TE reduced clipping yields in all

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Yang Gao and Deying Li

initiated on 20 Mar. 2011. After the 8-week fertilization period, a 4-week no-fertilization period was introduced to evaluate the fertility levels remaining in the root zones based on clipping yield change and visual quality. After the evaluation, watering

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Daniel Hargey, Benjamin Wherley, Andrew Malis, James Thomas, and Ambika Chandra

differences due to TE were observed in study 2, there were again decreased clipping yields observed with the use of TE in both cultivars. Fig. 2. Effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) and trinexapac-ethyl on mean weekly clipping dry weights of ‘Floratam’ and