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The citron ( Citrus medica L.) is believed to be one of the ancestors of the citrus group ( Barrett and Rhoads, 1976 ), but its study was somewhat neglected during the 20th century, presumably because of its limited commercial use. However, renewed

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; Nimmakayala et al., 2009 ; Sandlin et al., 2012 ). In this study, we will refer to samples as cultivars ( C. lanatus var. lanatus ), citron types ( C. lanatus var. citroides ), or egusi types ( C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus ). Citron and egusi types

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, Citrullus colocynthis , Citrullus ecirrhosus , Citrullus rehmii , and Citrullus naudinianus . The authors further ascribed species Citrullus amarus to the citron watermelon. The Citrullus species are mainly found in the temperate regions of Africa

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citrus types are citron ( C. medica ), pummelo ( C. maxima ), and mandarin ( C. reticulata ). This argument was made four decades ago by several scholars ( Barrett and Rhodes, 1976 ; Scora, 1975 ) based on morphological and biochemical characteristics

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percentages for each seed parent (pedigrees were not determined for individual seedlings) from each of the progenitor Citrus species that gave rise to all cultivated citrus: citron ( C . medica ), pummelo ( C . maxima ), mandarin ( C. reticulata ), and

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classification: 16 species were included in the Citrus genus in the classification of Swingle, whereas Tanaka described 162 species. The subsequent phylogenetic studies suggested that there were three true cultivated Citrus species, mandarin, citron, and

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Greenhouse-grown l-year-old sweet orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Valencia] on cold-hardy trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] and cold-sensitive citron (C. medica L.) rootstocks were exposed to cold-acclimation conditions and freeze-tested at -6.7C for 4 hours in a temperature-programed walk-in freezer room. Nonhardened trees generally did not survive the freeze, whereas cold-hardened trees survived with no wood kill on either rootstock. Essentially, all leaves died or abscised during the subsequent 5 weeks in the greenhouse. Freeze survival did not separate rootstocks nor did supercooling in separate trials where Yalencia' wood reached –8.8C before apparent nucleation. Increases in concentration of carbohydrates and proline and decreases in water content in Yalencia' leaves during cold hardening were generally associated with increased freeze tolerance. Other tests, that matched 9-month-old seedlings of citron with trifoliate orange rootstock, showed clear differences in the superior cold acclimation of trifoliate orange over citron, which, however, performed better than expected.

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We thank Aliza Vardi and M. Bar-Joseph for critical reading and valuable comments on the manuscript. Financial support to E.E.G by the Y.M and R. Kibilevitch Fund for Citron Research is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks to E. Tribulato

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To assess genetic diversity in the UC Riverside Citrus Variety Collection, all accessions of pummelo (59), citron (24), and trifoliate orange (48) were studied for RFLP variation using 11-18 cDNA probes that had previously been shown to reveal polymorphism in a broad range of citrus germplasm. Inheritance studies have shown that these probes hybridize to at least 20 loci. The taxa studied are believed to represent biological species rather than hybrids. Citrons were nearly monomorphic and most appeared homozygous at all of the loci studied. Pummelos were very polymorphic and highly heterozygous. Trifoliate orange, an important source of disease resistance in rootstock breeding, was nearly monomorphic but moderately heterozygous (17% of loci). Most accessions of trifoliate orange have evidently differentiated only by mutation. One multilocus probe separated trifoliate orange accessions into 3 groups. Two new trifoliate orange accessions had novel alleles at some loci. The use of genetic markers to recognize hybrid accessions classified as members of species will be discussed.

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. Coral red is recessive to the white flesh color that is common in citron. Additionally, the seed color and size of watermelon fruit are important for the market. Seed color can be white, tan, brown, black, red, green, or dotted. Seed size can be tomato

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