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Abstract

Various procedures were compared to identify a technique that would produce clear countable chromosomes in grape (Vitis L.) root tip squashes. Harvesting roots at 1100 hr from greenhouse-grown plants, pretreating with 0.02 m 8-hydroxyquinoline at 18°C for 6 hr, fixing in Farmer's Fluid at 26° for 24 hr, hydrolyzing in 1 n HCl at 60° for 1 hr, and staining with an altered form of carbol fuchsin gave the best results.

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alter breeding strategy ( Fehr, 1991 ). Unfortunately, relative to the number of species in the genus, the cytological information is sparse for Callicarpa . The first beautyberry chromosome count reported was for C. japonica (2 n = 32) by Sugiura

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). Permanent slides were prepared by freezing with liquid nitrogen, air-dried, and then mounted in Entellan® (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). Estimation of chromosome number and size. Chromosome number counting and length measurement from digital

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Genome size, chromosome number, and ploidy level are important biological parameters for plant breeding, systematics, and evolution. Since the first published chromosome counts of plants in 1882 ( Garbari et al., 2012 ), ≈25% of angiosperms have

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( Doležel et al., 2003 ). The sample monoploid 1Cx value (in picograms) was calculated by dividing the 2C value by the ploidy level ( x = 8) of Z. mauritiana ( Greilhuber et al., 2005 ). Chromosome count. Ten seedlings were selected randomly and

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originally introduced from China ≈3000 years ago. Nishiyama (1928) was the first to count chromosome numbers of Lycoris species and gave n = 11. A large number of cytogenetic studies of Lycoris have been published since then (review by Jones, 1998

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caladium species, presumably as a result of the lack of such information. Although early chromosome counts exist in caladium ( Kurakubo, 1940 ), chromosome numbers are not available for most caladium species according to the Index to Plant Chromosome

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lines. Nine flow cytometrical analyses were performed for each selection using three different plants. Chromosome counting. The two triploids identified via nuclear DNA content were both confirmed to have 2 n = 3 x = 45 chromosomes ( Fig. 8

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providing reagents and equipment for chromosome counts. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.

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colchicine treatment. Chromosome counting. The ploidy level was determined by chromosome counting in metaphasic cells ( Rego et al., 2011 ). Chromosome detection was performed as described by Chen et al. (1979) . Two months after colchicine treatment, stem

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