Fermentation is a necessary step in the processing of cacao for chocolate ( Sukha and Seguine, 2015 ). Fermentation of the mucilage-covered beans is initiated by naturally present microorganisms such as yeasts, acetic and lactic acid forming
Harry C. Bittenbender, Loren D. Gautz, Ed Seguine and Jason L. Myers
Paul W. Bosland, Danise Coon and Gregory Reeves
the world’s hottest chile pepper at 1,463,700 SHU ( Guinness Book of World Records, 2011 ). Other varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (e.g., ‘Trinidad Moruga Scorpion’, ‘Trinidad 7-pot Jonah’, and ‘Douglah Trinidad Chocolate’) have been reported as very
Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez and Cynthia McKenney
were Salvia farinacea (mealy cup sage), Berlandiera lyrata (chocolate daisy), Ratibida columnaris (Mexican hat), Oenothera elata (Hooker’s evening primrose), Zinnia grandiflora (plains zinnia), and Monarda citriodora (lemon horsemint). All
Robert Lawrence Jarret and Terry Berke
calyx constriction. However, we acknowledge that accessions that have been previously referred to in the literature as ”chili chocolate” ( Pickersgill et al., 1979 ) are somewhat atypical. The USDA/ARS germplasm collection contained 29 accessions that
George E. Boyhan, Cecilia McGregor, Suzanne O’Connell, Johannah Biang and David Berle
of New Hampshire, ‘Sweet Chocolate’ is an open-pollinated specialty sweet pepper that is brown at maturity ( Seed Savers Exchange, 2019 ). There is a dearth of pepper trials that compare variety performance under organic production practices
research. At the back of the book are a list of references of all of the sources cited within the text, a list of suggested additional reading, a very helpful glossary of cocoa and chocolate-specific terminology, and an index. Cocoa Production and
Amarat H. Simonne, Eric H. Simonne, Ronald R. Eitenmiller, Nancy R. Green, Joe A. Little, John T. Owen, Marvin E. Ruf and Jim A. Pitts
Vitamin C (VC) levels (mg/l00 g FW) were determined in 10 varieties of colored bell pepper grown under different field conditions. VC was determined by the microfluorometric method. `Orobelle' (169 mg), `King Arthur' (143 mg), `Valencia' (141 mg), and `Chocolate Bell' (134 mg) had significantly higher VC levels than `Dove' (109 mg), `Ivory' (106 mg), `Blue Jay' (93 mg), `Canary' (90 mg), and `Black Bird' (65 mg). The largest variability (53 mg) in VC levels were observed for varieties that had the highest VC content. Mean VC levels were 143a, 143a, 141a, 136a, 108ab, 93bc, and 63c for the yellow, red, orange, brown, white, purple, and black colors, respectively. Since the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for VC is 60 mg per day, these results suggested that a 100-g serving of fresh bell pepper or less would supply 100% RDA of VC. Therefore, after selecting a color, growers still have the freedom to grow a variety that performs well in their area to produce peppers of high VC contents.
Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle
Prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) is a relatively new plant growth regulator (PGR) that inhibits internode length in rice, small grains, and fruit trees. However, little is known about its efficacy and potential phytotoxicity on floriculture crops and how it compares to other commercially available PGR chemicals. The effects of two foliar spray applications (2 weeks apart) of ProCa (500, 1000, or 2000 ppm), paclobutrazol (30 ppm), or a tank mix of daminozide plus chlormequat (2500 and 1000 ppm, respectively) were quantified on Dianthus barbatus L. `Interspecific Dynasty Red', Ageratina altissima R. King & H. Robinson (Eupatorium rugosum) `Chocolate', Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Fangio', and Buddleia davidii Franch. `Mixed.' All plants were forced in a glass-glazed greenhouse with a constant temperature setpoint of 20 °C under a 16-h photoperiod. Two weeks after the second spray application of ProCa at 500, 1000, or 2000 ppm, plant height of Dianthus and Lilium was shorter than control plants by 56%, 60%, and 65% and by 6%, 26%, and 28%, respectively. However, ProCa bleached and reduced the size of Dianthus flowers. ProCa at 2000 ppm and daminozide plus chlormequat were effective at controlling the height of Eupatorium (64% and 53% reduction, respectively); however, leaves of Eupatorium were discolored and showed symptoms of phytotoxicity 1 week after the first ProCa application. Only daminozide plus chlormequat were effective on Buddleia. ProCa is an effective PGR for most of the crops we tested; however, its discoloration of red flowers and foliage may limit its application for commercial use.
N.S. Lang, R. Smithyman, L. Mills, R.L. Wample, J. Silbernagel and E.M. Perry
Blackleaf (a.k.a. chocolate leaf) is of worldwide concern in Vitis due to its negative impact on fruit ripening, yield reduction and overall stress on grapevines. Research suggests blackleaf is induced by high levels of UV radiation and overall light intensity, which induce color changes (purple-brown-black) in exposed leaves, resulting in >50% reduction in photosynthesis. The ability to detect blackleaf symptoms before expression can provide insight into metabolic stresses and the possibility of the use and/or timing of management practices to reduce its impact. Remotely sensed imagery and spatial analysis may elucidate reflectance-related processes and symptoms not apparent to the un-aided eye. In this research we mapped canopy growth (leaves/shoot and shoots/vine), metabolic triggers (photosynthesis, leaf water potential, soil moisture), and percent blackleaf expression within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS), infrared gas analyzer, and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Continuing research will be aimed at identifying spectral characteristics of early season stresses due to UV light, water stress, and reduced photosynthetic capacity. Spatial relationships between early season stress and later blackleaf expression will be assessed using joint spatial dependence measures. Overall, information obtained through digital image and spatial analysis will supplement site level information for growers.
Jane Kahia, Siaka Kone, Lucien Diby, Georges Ngoran, Colombe Dadjo and Christophe Kouame
Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) is a major tropical crop, grown for its oil-rich seed, which is used in the manufacture of chocolate, its derivatives, and cosmetics. Cacao is cultivated mainly by smallholders and represents a significant export commodity for some developing countries such as Côte d’Ivoire. It is conventionally propagated by seeds, grafting, and cuttings. Somatic embryogenesis offers an alternative method for propagation where large-scale production of planting materials is possible. In the current study, the effect of different concentrations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and kinetin on induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in two cocoa clones (coded as C1 and C14) were evaluated. Flowers were collected early in the morning, sterilized, explants excised and cultured on Driver, and Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) media supplemented with different concentrations of 2, 4-D (9, 10, and 20 µM) and kinetin (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 µM) in separate experiments. The frequently used media in somatic embryogenesis of cacao [DKW supplemented with 0.022 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) and 9 µM 2, 4-D] was used as a control. The results of the study showed that explants cultured on media supplemented with 10 µM 2, 4-D and 5 µM kinetin produced the highest (28.0 ± 1.1) mean number of embryos/explant in C1 and this was a 9-fold increase in the number of embryos compared with the control. Explants cultured on media supplemented with 10 µM 2, 4-D and 2.5 µM kinetin produced the highest (7.0 ± 4.0) mean number of embryos/explant in C14 whereas the explants cultured on media supplemented with 20 µM 2, 4-D and 2.5 µM kinetin gave the highest (22.0 ± 1.7) mean number of embryos in clone C1 and C14. The regenerated embryos were germinated and successfully weaned in the green house with a survival rate of 70% being recorded. The paper describes an improved protocol compared with previous work in terms of embryo recovery and survival rate of the elite clones of cocoa through somatic embryogenesis. The results of the current study confirm that somatic embryogenesis of cacao clones is genotype dependent.