Fermentation is a necessary step in the processing of cacao for chocolate ( Sukha and Seguine, 2015 ). Fermentation of the mucilage-covered beans is initiated by naturally present microorganisms such as yeasts, acetic and lactic acid forming
Harry C. Bittenbender, Loren D. Gautz, Ed Seguine, and Jason L. Myers
A. L. Kamal and M. Marroush
Incidence of chocolate spot, known also as internal brown spot, in tubers of the ‘Arran Banner’ cultivar can reach as high as 60% (Fig. 1). This cultivar is widely grown in the Beqa'a plain of Lebanon for its high yield and good storage life. Other cultivars grown elsewhere in potato producing areas of the world are also seriously damaged by this physiological disease. Control in ‘Arran Banner’ in Lebanon was obtained by foliar sprays with 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon) using rates ranging from 200-600 ppm (Table 1).
Julie Campbell and Vanessa Shonkwiler
experiment were to understand what importance consumers place on various types of value-added pecans (i.e., cinnamon sugar, pralines, salted and roasted, chocolate-covered, and plain roasted), their origins (i.e., Oklahoma, Georgia, Texas, Mexico, and United
Paul W. Bosland, Danise Coon, and Gregory Reeves
the world’s hottest chile pepper at 1,463,700 SHU ( Guinness Book of World Records, 2011 ). Other varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (e.g., ‘Trinidad Moruga Scorpion’, ‘Trinidad 7-pot Jonah’, and ‘Douglah Trinidad Chocolate’) have been reported as very
Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Cynthia McKenney
were Salvia farinacea (mealy cup sage), Berlandiera lyrata (chocolate daisy), Ratibida columnaris (Mexican hat), Oenothera elata (Hooker’s evening primrose), Zinnia grandiflora (plains zinnia), and Monarda citriodora (lemon horsemint). All
Robert Lawrence Jarret and Terry Berke
calyx constriction. However, we acknowledge that accessions that have been previously referred to in the literature as ”chili chocolate” ( Pickersgill et al., 1979 ) are somewhat atypical. The USDA/ARS germplasm collection contained 29 accessions that
George E. Boyhan, Cecilia McGregor, Suzanne O’Connell, Johannah Biang, and David Berle
of New Hampshire, ‘Sweet Chocolate’ is an open-pollinated specialty sweet pepper that is brown at maturity ( Seed Savers Exchange, 2019 ). There is a dearth of pepper trials that compare variety performance under organic production practices
research. At the back of the book are a list of references of all of the sources cited within the text, a list of suggested additional reading, a very helpful glossary of cocoa and chocolate-specific terminology, and an index. Cocoa Production and
Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle
Prohexadione-Ca (ProCa) is a relatively new plant growth regulator (PGR) that inhibits internode length in rice, small grains, and fruit trees. However, little is known about its efficacy and potential phytotoxicity on floriculture crops and how it compares to other commercially available PGR chemicals. The effects of two foliar spray applications (2 weeks apart) of ProCa (500, 1000, or 2000 ppm), paclobutrazol (30 ppm), or a tank mix of daminozide plus chlormequat (2500 and 1000 ppm, respectively) were quantified on Dianthus barbatus L. `Interspecific Dynasty Red', Ageratina altissima R. King & H. Robinson (Eupatorium rugosum) `Chocolate', Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Fangio', and Buddleia davidii Franch. `Mixed.' All plants were forced in a glass-glazed greenhouse with a constant temperature setpoint of 20 °C under a 16-h photoperiod. Two weeks after the second spray application of ProCa at 500, 1000, or 2000 ppm, plant height of Dianthus and Lilium was shorter than control plants by 56%, 60%, and 65% and by 6%, 26%, and 28%, respectively. However, ProCa bleached and reduced the size of Dianthus flowers. ProCa at 2000 ppm and daminozide plus chlormequat were effective at controlling the height of Eupatorium (64% and 53% reduction, respectively); however, leaves of Eupatorium were discolored and showed symptoms of phytotoxicity 1 week after the first ProCa application. Only daminozide plus chlormequat were effective on Buddleia. ProCa is an effective PGR for most of the crops we tested; however, its discoloration of red flowers and foliage may limit its application for commercial use.
Amarat H. Simonne, Eric H. Simonne, Ronald R. Eitenmiller, Nancy R. Green, Joe A. Little, John T. Owen, Marvin E. Ruf, and Jim A. Pitts
Vitamin C (VC) levels (mg/l00 g FW) were determined in 10 varieties of colored bell pepper grown under different field conditions. VC was determined by the microfluorometric method. `Orobelle' (169 mg), `King Arthur' (143 mg), `Valencia' (141 mg), and `Chocolate Bell' (134 mg) had significantly higher VC levels than `Dove' (109 mg), `Ivory' (106 mg), `Blue Jay' (93 mg), `Canary' (90 mg), and `Black Bird' (65 mg). The largest variability (53 mg) in VC levels were observed for varieties that had the highest VC content. Mean VC levels were 143a, 143a, 141a, 136a, 108ab, 93bc, and 63c for the yellow, red, orange, brown, white, purple, and black colors, respectively. Since the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for VC is 60 mg per day, these results suggested that a 100-g serving of fresh bell pepper or less would supply 100% RDA of VC. Therefore, after selecting a color, growers still have the freedom to grow a variety that performs well in their area to produce peppers of high VC contents.