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Killian Melsen, Mark van de Wouw, and Ryan Contreras

physical mutagens to plant breeding was quickly recognized ( Gates, 1930 ). Approximately two decades later, the first chemical mutagens were discovered in the United Kingdom and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( Auerbach and Robson, 1946 ; Rapoport

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Jong-Yi Fang and Siguina Traore

effective tool for crop improvement, and more than 2250 mutant cultivars have been released worldwide ( Ahloowalia et al., 2004 ). Artificial mutation induction can be carried out using physical and chemical mutagens and mutation induction with radiation was

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Nuananong Purente, Bin Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Yunwei Zhou, and Miao He

). Improvements in mutant varieties of different crop species have been used widely in cultivation ( Kharkwal and Shu, 2009 ; Mohan Jian and Suprasanna, 2011 ). EMS is a commonly used chemical mutagen in plants and has become a primary resource for development of

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Ryan N. Contreras and Kim Shearer

breeders to induce genetic variation in plants and can be particularly useful for naturally self-pollinating plants ( Waugh et al., 2006 ). EMS is a preferred method due to ease of access, its chemical mode of action, and cost compared with methods such as

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Timothy G. Porch, Matthew W. Blair, Patricia Lariguet, Carlos Galeano, Clive E. Pankhurst, and William J. Broughton

thus important. Radioisotopes, x-ray, and chemical mutagens have been used previously to induce mutations in common bean. Gamma radiation has been used for the breeding of seed yield and quality ( Sarafi, 1973 ), seed color ( Allavena, 1989 ; Hussein

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Stephen Patrick Greer and Timothy A. Rinehart

Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) is a mutagen that chemically alters DNA through random reaction and modification of oxygen present in nucleotide bases (such as the O6 of guanine and O4 of thymine) as well as in DNA phosphate groups ( Sega, 1984

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Anakkaorn Wannajindaporn, Chitpan Kativat, and Piyada Alisha Tantasawat

been used successfully in several plants including Dendrobium ( Khatri et al., 2011 ; Khosravi et al., 2009 ; Kumar et al., 2011 ; Mostafa and Alfrmawy, 2011 ). Mutations can be induced by either radiation or chemical mutagens. The most commonly

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Loren C. Stephens

barriers exist to conventional breeding methods ( Donini and Sonnino, 1998 ). Although in vitro culture alone has produced many spontaneous mutations or somaclonal variants ( Veilleux and Johnson, 1998 ), the use of chemical mutagens combined with in vitro

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William A. Smith and Mark H. Brand

variegation and landscape performance that can extend the ornamental appeal of butterfly bush to the spring and early summer periods before the start of flowering. Origin ‘Summer Skies’ resulted from seed that was mutagenized using the chemical mutagen ethyl

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, Dennis E. Deyton, Kristin R. Abney, David E. Kopsell, and Larry Robertson

tumor cells ( Balder et al., 2006 ; Egner et al., 2003 ). Alternatively, dietary chlorophylls may reduce intestinal absorption of potentially harmful chemical mutagens and carcinogens ( Hartman and Shankel, 1990 ; Natsume et al., 2004 ). Dietary