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Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Oscar Rebolledo Dominguez, and Lourdes Diaz Jimenes

The responsible substances involved in the phenomenon of compability/incompatibility in Sapotaceae species during two phenological stages were elucidated. An experiment was carried out to determine the compatibility/incompatibility relationship between homografts and heterografts of Sapotaceae species during two phenological stages, and to identify the responsible substances involved in the phenomenon. In order to determine the compatibility/incompatibility between Sapotaceae species, heterograftings were made using the mamey [Calocarpumsapota(Jacq.) Merr.] as scion, and chicozapote [(Achrassapota(L.)] was used as rootstock. Grafting was conducted during the phenological stage of defoliation of the scion donor plant, as well as during budding. Homografts were also made using C. sapota on C. sapota in both phenological stages. Plant tissue samples were obtained from scions and rootstocks in both phenological stages, and they were used for HPLC analysis. Heterografts (C. sapota on A. sapota) showed 100% incompatibility in both stages, and lack of success during grafting was obtained; similar results were registered with the homografts (C. sapota on C. sapota) during the budding stage; however, during the defoliation stage, 80% successful grafting was obtained. The responsible substances involved in the phenomenon of compatibility/incompatibility using samples taken during the grafting day and 60 days after (C. sapota grafted on A. sapota during defoliation stage), were identified as catechin and epicatechin. Catechins are the responsible substances of incompatibility in the heterografts of C. sapota /A. sapotain both phenological stages, as well as during the budding stage in the homografts on C. sapota.

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M. Radi, M. Mahrouz, A. Jaouad, M. Tacchini, S. Aubert, M. Hugues, and M.J. Amiot

Phenolic composition and susceptibility to browning were determined for nine apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars. Chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and rutin (or quercetin-3-rutinoside) were the major phenolic compounds in apricots. In addition to these compounds, other quercetin-3-glycosides and procyanidins have been detected. Chlorogenic acid content decreased rapidly during enzymatic browning, but the susceptibility to browning seemed to be more strongly correlated with the initial amount of flavan-3-ols (defined as catechin monomers and procyanidins). As chlorogenic acid is certainly the best substrate for polyphenol oxidase, the development of brown pigments depended mainly on the flavan-3-ol content.

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Daniel Ferreira Holderbaum, Tomoyuki Kon, Tsuyoshi Kudo, and Miguel Pedro Guerra

compounds {chlorogenic acid, [−]-catechin [(−)- trans -3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavane], [−]-epicatechin, [−]-epicatechin gallate [(−)- cis -3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavane-3-gallate], [−]-epigallocatechin gallate [(−)- cis -3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxy

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Li-Qiang Tan, Xin-Yu Wang, Hui Li, Guan-Qun Liu, Yao Zou, Shen-Xiang Chen, Ping-Wu Li, and Qian Tang

GB/T8312–2013. Catechin content was extracted and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography methods according to GB/T8313–2008 with minor modifications. Briefly, 0.2000 g of powdered sample was extracted twice by intermittent shaking in 5

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Suparna K. Whale and Zora Singh

responsible for the red color ( Lancaster, 1992 ). Apple skin also contains high concentrations of flavonols (quercetin 3-glycosides), flavanols (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin), dihydrochalcones (phloridzin), and hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic acid

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Martina Göttingerová, Michal Kumšta, Eliška Rampáčková, Tomáš Kiss, and Tomáš Nečas

acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-rutinoside ( Dragovic-Uzelac et al., 2005 ). Chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and rutin are the most common phytochemicals found in apricot fruits

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Valentina Schmitzer, Robert Veberic, Gregor Osterc, and Franci Stampar

have monitored the changes in concentration of various phenolic compounds and color parameters. To our knowledge, this work provides the first report on abundance of various anthocyanins, quercetins, catechin, and phenolic acids at four developmental

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Jerneja Jakopič, Franci Štampar, and Robert Veberič

red colors are produced by cyanidin glycosides copigmented with flavonols and other compounds ( Lancaster, 1992 ). Apple fruit is known to be rich in flavonoid compounds such as anthocyanins, dihydrochalcones, quarcetin 3-glycosides, catechin, and

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Travis R. Alexander, Thomas S. Collins, and Carol A. Miles

, 1978 ; Sataque and Wosiacki, 1987 ). Guyot et al. (2003) found concentrations of monomeric catechins and procyanidins to be significantly decreased in five French cider apple cultivars as a result of oxidation during crushing and/or interactions with

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Guiwen W. Cheng and Carlos H. Crisosto

The formation of metallo-pigmentation and copigmentation as potential mechanisms of inking formation was investigated in peach and nectarine skin tissues. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, the most abundant anthocyanin in peaches and nectarines, formed very purple ferric complexes with an anthocyanin/iron molar ratio of two. Greenish metallo complexes between ferric ion and chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, or epicatechin formed with an phenolic/iron molar ratio of one. The lack of copigmentation pointed out the importance to focus research on the metallo-phenolics reaction. High intensity of dark color formation was developed with cyanidin-3-glucoside, followed by caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, and epicatechin on an equal molar basis. Citric acid acted as a strong iron chelator to prevent and reverse the formation of ferric cyanidin-3-glucoside complexes. The variety of dark and light colored spots observed on the surface of peaches and nectarines is explained by the formation of metallo-pigment complexes.