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Lanqing Wang, Yinfeng Li, Dehai Liu, Chaohui Zhang, Yuancheng Qi, Yuqian Gao, Jinwen Shen, and Liyou Qiu

immobilization carrier mixtures listed in Table 1 were tested. Each was blended with pellets of TD300 on a weight ratio of 1:10 to make immobilized spawns; as shown in Results and discussion, the mixture of cottonseed hull, corn core, and wheat bran at a ratio

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Gary J. Kling, Hannah M. Mathers, and Luke Case

incorporates more than one control measure, including chemicals, thus becomes important. Herbicide carriers could help reduce the problem of quick release of herbicides into the environment. Geotextiles, when used in combination with preemergence herbicides

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Larissa Larocca de Souza and Marcelo L. Moretti

environment and spray equipment ( Kudsk, 2002 ). Carrier volume and droplet size are spray quality parameters that can interfere with herbicide efficacy. It is well established that spray coverage improves with increasing spray volume—to a point. In broad

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Diane M. Camberato, James J. Camberato, and Roberto G. Lopez

efficiency. Growth regulator solutions made with high pH (greater than 7.0) or highly buffered (greater than 100 mg·L −1 CaCO 3 ) carrier water may reduce effectiveness, as suggested by Hammer (2001) . A grower survey ( Burns, 2004 ) indicated that 60% of

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Kellie J. Walters and Roberto G. Lopez

ethephon concentrations can inhibit root growth and development ( Feldman, 1984 ). Before spray applications, the liquid ethephon is mixed with water, known as carrier water, to form the spray solution. The evolution of the liquid ethephon to the gaseous

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Diego Pozueta-Romero, Pedro Gonzalez, Ed Etxeberria, and Javier Pozueta-Romero

independent transport systems. Whereas the hyperbolic phase at low external sugar concentration is believed to represent a high-affinity, membrane-bound, carrier-mediated component, the linear nonsaturable phase at higher concentrations has been suggested to

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Ainhoa Martínez-Medina, Antonio Roldán, and Jose A. Pascual

Trichoderma sp. has been tested ( Batta, 2004 ; Kolombet et al., 2008 ; Kücük and Kivanc, 2005 ; Zohar-Perez et al., 2003 ), they are focused on keeping the culture viable and active during storage. Some additives (protectants and carriers) have been used

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Jayesh Samtani, Gary Kling*, and David Williams

Conventional herbicide applications to container-grown landscape plants, often requires multiple spray applications of herbicides in a growing season and presents problems such as non-uniform application, leaching, run-off, environmental pollution, worker exposure and phytotoxicity to the landscape plants. The use of an organic herbicide carrier could help reduce some of the problems associated with spray applications. Landscape-leaf waste pellets were evaluated as a preemergent herbicide carrier for container-grown landscape plants. Isoxaben, prodiamine and pendimethalin were applied to Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum `Lisa', Euonymus fortunei `Coloratus' and Spiraea japonica `Neon Flash', at rates of 1.12, 2.25, and 2.25 kg·ha-1 active ingredient, respectively, with either water or landscape leaf waste pellets as a carrier. Portulaca oleracea, Senecio vulgaris, and Setaria faberi were seeded following treatment application. Visual ratings on efficacy and photoxicity to landscape plants, and shoot fresh and dry biomass were determined for both weeds and crop plants. Landscape leaf pellets served as an effective carrier for application of prodiamine and pendimethalin and combinations of these herbicides with isoxaben in controlling weeds. Leaf waste pellets as a carrier produced equivalent weed control and phytotoxicity ratings to conventional spray application of these herbicides, on both Chrysanthemum and Euonymus. The pellets did not make a consistently effective carrier for the application of isoxaben alone. Application of herbicides on leaf pellets could result in more uniform herbicide applications, minimize loss of herbicides to the environment and reduce the risk of herbicide contact with nursery workers.

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Hannah Mathers

Weed growth in container-grown nursery stock is a particularly serious problem. Inexpensive and easily accessible carriers for safe application of concentrated preemergent herbicides have been investigated. Monaco and Hodges (1974) evaluated standard pine bark used in potting media. Coating broadcast fertilizers with preemergents has also been recently examined in agronomic crops (Koscelny and Peeper, 1996; Rabaey and Harvey, 1994). The four objectives of this experiment were: 1) determine the efficacy and duration of weed control of a range of preemergent herbicide-impregnated carriers, applied as a top-dressing. The preemergents to be tested are: Goal, Surflan, Rout, Gallery, Gallery/Surflan, Ronstar and Regal 0; 2) determine the efficacy and duration of weed control of a range of preemergent herbicide-impregnated slow and controlled release fertilizers, applied preplant incorporated in the potting mix; 3) assess the phytotoxicity of the chemical-treated carriers on the ornamental plants evaluated; and 4) determine which weeds were controlled. Of the carriers investigated, bark was the best treatment regardless of pre-emergent used. However, Surflan and Gallery were slightly better than Goal. The effectiveness of the bark in controlling weeds is worth investigating in further studies. A significant species effect with the efficacy data was observed. Euonymus `Emerald Gaiety' was significantly better at competing with the weeds present than the other species evaluated. Top dressing gave significantly fewer weeds, with rated data, vs. incorporation. The effect was most pronounced for Kansel or Fert. plus Ronstar. Osmocote micro-fert. gave less weeds, top-dressed, when weed weights were analyzed. However, using the weed weight data, there were no significant differences whether the carriers were applied top dress or incorporated. Phytotoxicity was not significantly different with incorporation vs. top dressing.

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Bonnie Appleton and Jeffrey Derr

Discs of several materials, including paper, fiberglass, black polyethylene and several woven and nonwoven (spunbonded) polypropylene geotextiles or landscape fabrics, were tested for container weed control. Weed growth developed with some materials due to decomposition and lack of proper fit.

One commercially available combination geotextile-herbicide product gave excellent weed control. A slow-release fertilizer was then attached, giving not only excellent weed control but also promoting satisfactory nursery plant growth. This concept of using a geotextile disc as a chemical carrier (a “horticultural collar”) is being further developed.