used (ET, m 3 ·ha −1 ), as measured by water balance ( Patanè et al., 2014 ). Analysis of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and SSC. Carotenoids extraction was done according to the method of Daood et al. (2014) . Ascorbic acid was extracted from 5 g of well
The six primary carotenoids found in most plant species include zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, and neoxanthin ( Sandmann, 2001 ). Carotenoids are pigments integrated into light-harvesting complexes of chloroplasts that
The presence of carotenoids in fruit, vegetables, and flowers imparts yellow, orange, or red color to them ( Hari et al., 1994 ). Over 600 carotenoids have been identified ( Pfander et al., 1987 ). They can be divided into two groups: 1) the
have motivated plant geneticists to develop yellow-fleshed cultivars with more intense yellow coloring. The pigments in these potatoes are xanthophylls and include the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids are of keen interest in the
The aim of this study was to monitor the pigment profile and chlorophyllase (Chlase) and lipoxygenase (Lox) activities of olive (Olea europaea L.) drupes during the development of the fruit from `Arbequina' and `Farga' in order to find better ways to characterize cultivars such as `Arbequina' that produce virgin olive oils that are highly appreciated in international markets. `Farga' was included as a comparative reference. The total pigment content in olive drupes from the two cultivars studied suffered a decrease when the maturation process began, the rate of chlorophyll degradation being more marked than that of the carotenoid pigment. Chlorophyllides a and b, cis-α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and esterified xanthophylls were detected only in `Arbequina' fruit. The behavior of the Chlase and Lox activities in both cultivars was different. Chlase activity in olives from `Farga' was detected only at the end of the pit hardening period, but in the case of `Arbequina' the presence of dephytilated chlorophyllic derivatives is directly related to a higher Chlase enzymatic activity than that of `Farga' fruit. Although the level of these enzymatic activities decreased when ripening advanced in both cultivars, in `Arbequina' both enzymes showed a slight increase of activity at the latest stages of ripening.
., 2006 ). With the popularity of Asian cuisine, bunching onions are being consumed more in Western diets.
Carotenoids are lipid soluble pigments integrated into light-harvesting complexes ( Croce et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Carotenoids function as light
; Kim et al., 2016a ; Stommel and Griesbach, 2008 ). Fruit pigmentation involves several groups of compounds including lipid-soluble carotenoids and water-soluble phenolics ( Guzman et al., 2011 ; Rodriguez-Amaya, 2019 ). The importance of natural
carotenoids ( Barickman et al., 2014a ) in fruit tissue. Based upon many studies, it has been suggested that anthocyanin compounds possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activity ( He and Giusti, 2010 ). In addition, carotenoids are powerful
recommended. Cellular damage, associated with aging, chronic diseases, and cancers often caused by free radicals, can be prevented with antioxidants ( Ames et al., 1993 ; Valko et al., 2007 ). Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are synthesized in
Carrots have favorable nutritional characteristics, containing antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and other bioactive micronutrients ( Metzger and Barnes, 2009 ; Nicolle et al., 2004 ). Carrots are suitable basic material for the production of