cardiovascular disease ( Li et al., 2015 ; Wang et al., 2013 ). Species within the genus Salvia are also exploited for food, spices, cosmetics, and ornamental purposes ( Neugebauerová et al., 2015 ; Wang et al., 2011 ). The dried roots of S. miltiorrhiza
most people think because it disables and kills by substantially raising the risk of cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, hypertension, osteoarthritis, stroke, type II diabetes, specific forms of cancer, and other diseases ( CDC, 2007 ; Weisberg, 2002
Control of muscadine diseases is necessary to minimize yield loss and is especially important for highest quality if the berries are to be marketed fresh. Throughout the 1998 growing season, vines of five muscadine cultivars (`Noble', `Summit', `Cowart', `Higgins', and `Carlos') were treated under a systematic disease control spray program; four fungicides registered for use on grapes were applied sequentially at 10- to 20-day intervals from early bloom until just before harvest. Control plants received no fungicide. The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of the spray schedule on foliage and berry diseases and to study the relationship between disease incidence and resveratrol content of the berries. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin and has been favorably implicated in cardiovascular disease and certain cancer processes. Foliar diseases were rated visually twice during the season. Berry disease ratings were made at harvest. All fungal foliage and berry diseases were significantly reduced by the fungicide treatments. Resveratrol concentrations were determined separately on berry skins, seed and pulp/juice by GC/MS. Overall, resveratrol levels in berry skins from unsprayed vines were much higher than those of sprayed vines. Concentrations varied by cultivar and within cultivar by treatment. The relationship of skin concentration and total disease score or scores of specific diseases has not been established. Seed resveratrol concentrations differed by cultivar but were not affected by the fungicide treatments. Mean concentration of seed was lower than that of skins. Accumulation of resveratrol in juice/pulp was much lower than in skins and seeds.
Control of muscadine diseases is necessary to minimize yield loss and is especially important for highest quality fresh-market berries. In a systematic disease control spray program, four fungicides registered for grapes were applied sequentially at 10- to 20-day intervals from early bloom until just before harvest to five muscadine cultivars. Objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the effects of the spray schedule on foliage and berry diseases; and 2) study the relationship between disease incidence and resveratrol content of the berries. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has shown potential value in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer processes. Foliar diseases were rated visually twice during the season. Berry disease ratings were made at harvest. All fungal foliage and berry diseases were significantly reduced by fungicide treatments. Resveratrol was determined separately on berry skins, seed and pulp/juice by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Overall, resveratrol levels in berry skins from unsprayed vines were much higher than those of sprayed vines. Concentrations varied by cultivar and within cultivar by treatment. The relationship between resveratrol concentration in skins and total disease score or scores of specific diseases was not established. Seed resveratrol concentrations differed by cultivar but were not affected by the fungicide treatments. Resveratrol concentration of seed was lower than that of skins. Accumulation of resveratrol in juice/pulp was much lower than in skins and seeds.
Lycopene is a pigment that imparts a red or red–orange color to some fruits and vegetables. This carotenoid has been extensively studied over the last 10 years because of its potent antioxidant activity and medical evidence that dietary intake can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers in the areas of horticulture and food science a current summary of available information on lycopene in plants, stabilization and extraction, and potential health benefits as delineated in current medical studies.
There has been a nationwide explosion of interest in consumption of red wine following a “60 Minutes” television segment entitled “The French Paradox.” The paradox was due to the fact the French consume more fat, smoke more, and exercise less than Americans and still have fewer heart attacks. A study of 12,000 male British doctors showed that moderate drinkers had the lowest death rates and the lowest vascular death rates compared to nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. The consumption of wine has been shown to provide healthful benefits, such as reducing cholesterol and decreasing cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive literature review of the latest scientific information on this subject is presented in this review.
Small fruit are rich in several types of phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. These compounds have health functional properties that may protect humans from cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Several of these phytochemicals, such as dietary fiber, anthocyanins, and polyphenolics, also contribute to small fruit quality. Other components contribute to appearance and taste. Nonvolatile organic acids contribute to the perceived sourness of small fruit and changes in levels can alter visual color by affecting cellular pH and anthocyanin structure. The soluble sugars glucose, fructose, and sucrose contribute directly to the perceived sweetness of the fruit and provide carbohydrates for other metabolic functions such as phenolic and ascorbic acid synthesis.
The concept of “Functional Foods” is becoming a commonly used term in discussions of human nutrition. Consumer awareness of natural food constituents and their role in cancer and cardiovascular disease prevention has done much to increase health consciousness with respect to plant products. The Plants and Human Health Program of the Boyce Thompson Institute uses molecular techniques to create transgenic plants with modified food composition; our goal is to devise strategies for production of pharmaceuticals or “nutraceuticals” in plants. Our initial focus has been genes encoding the antigenic proteins of human infectious agents such as hepatitis B and the causal agents of diarrheal disease. Areas of research include; 1) methods to increase production of foreign proteins in transgenic plants, and 2) utilization of engineered edible plant tissues for animal feeding studies. We have found that transgenic foods orally immunize test animals; these findings portend many new and exciting possibilities for plant medicinal chemistry.
Carotenoids are important phytochemical components of our diet and have gained recent attention as important nutritive compounds found mainly in fruits and vegetables with red, orange, and yellow hues. Lycopene is often cited as being inversely correlated with the occurrence of various cancers, in lowering rates of cardiovascular disease, and improving other various other immune responses. Antioxidant activity, specifically oxidative radical quenching power, is the putative rationale for carotenoids' involvement in disease risk reduction. It is unlikely, however, that carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity are directly correlated in the whole food since there are other antioxidants present in watermelon, such as various free amino acids. A total measure of antioxidant potential may prove to be a useful tool for measuring watermelon nutritional value and implementing pursuant breeding goals. One assay that has gained recent popularity is the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. ORAC includes two assays that separate lipophylic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Currently, most ORAC protocols use isolated compounds or freeze-dried fruit or vegetable samples. Here, the application of a standard hexane-type extraction method, which is more amenable to whole food carotenoid-containing samples, was investigated as a candidate extraction method for the ORAC assay. Variants of this method as well as of the standard ORAC extraction were compared for extraction efficiency. Finally, ORAC values were correlated with carotenoid content and shown to hold a loose negative correlation. Possible reasons for this are considered and discussed.
The current national trends in nutrition have resulted in a very high interest in the benefits of proper diet. It is very apparent that adding foods high in antioxidants to the human diet can have drastic affects on human health by reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, as well as age-related degenerative diseases. It is well-known and well-documented that spinach is one of the very best vegetables in antioxidant potential. It is high in beta-carotene (provitamin A) and is also very high in lutein (a carotenoid that is a strong antioxidant but with no vitamin A activity). Lutein has also been documented to have the potential to significantly reduce macular degeneration in humans when added to the diet on a regular basis. With these health benefits in mind the Univ. of Arkansas is releasing the spinach breeding line that has been tested as 88-310. It is a slow-growing semi-savoy that exhibits excellent color and has a moderate level of white rust resistance. It has excellent plant type, producing a very attractive compact rosette plant that is very desirable for root cut whole plants or for various types of clipped spinach. It is best-suited to both fall and overwinter production in Arkansas and for winter production in the Texas wintergarden. Seed for tests can be obtained by contacting T.E. Morelock, Dept. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.