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1. Farm-gate carbon footprint [global warming potential (GWP), carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e)] and variable costs for landscape plant production models using life cycle assessment. Field production of trees and shrubs is still an important but

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( Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005 ). In response to the concerns over increasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), “carbon footprints” are widely understood in the local vernacular as an indicator of global warming. Carbon footprints are expressed in units

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are 298 and 23, respectively ( BSI British Standards, 2011 ). The production, distribution, and use of products and services result in emission of GHG and thus a carbon footprint, expressed as the GWP of that product or service in kilograms CO 2

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, 2013 , 2014a , 2014b , 2015a , 2015b ; Ingram et al., 2016 , 2017a ; Kendall and McPherson, 2012 ) and greenhouse crops ( Ingram et al., 2017b , 2018a , 2018b ) to determine their respective contributions to the carbon footprint and variable

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Hall et al. (2010) , who found container type contributed most to consumers' interest in sustainably produced plants, outranking other highly influential considerations such as price and carbon footprint. Despite their perceived environmental benefits

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added costs and the carbon footprint impact (and the inherent tradeoffs) associated with the more labor- and energy-intensive activities on each end of the production continuum for the field-grown shrub plant category. Materials and Methods Life cycle

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describe environmental impacts of the nursery industry in the Piemonte region ( Beccaro et al., 2014 ) and the Pistoia plant production district ( Lazzerini et al., 2016 ; Nicese and Lazzerini, 2013 ) of Italy on an area basis. The carbon footprint of a

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) production system components to determine their contributions to the carbon footprint and variable costs of inputs and processes. Carbon footprint is expressed as the GWP of a product or process reflected in the emissions of greenhouse gases. GWP is

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the carbon footprint and variable cost structure of selected nursery species ( Hall and Ingram, 2014 , 2015 ; Ingram, 2012 , 2013 ; Ingram and Hall, 2014a , 2014b ) but to date have not compared the results of alternative production systems on the

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“sustainable,” “green,” and “reduced carbon footprint” are being used in conversations and promotions. Indeed, consumers have increasingly higher expectations for products and services that are more sustainable in terms of economics, natural resource depletion

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