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, use of natural pigments in food production is increasing worldwide ( Tian et al., 2014a ). Capsanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, k-caroten-6′-one) is one of the primary ingredients for red pigments. It accumulates in chromoplast thylakoids in the pericarp of

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sources. Oleoresin was obtained from Rezolex Corp. (Las Cruces, NM). Leaf material from ‘NuMex Garnet’ was collected from greenhouse-grown material, dried, and powdered as described for fruit. Chemicals. Purified standards for capsanthin and

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, capsanthin is the most abundant carotenoid and this carotenoid generates the red color in the fruit ( Daood et al., 2014 ; Deli et al., 2001 ). β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin are orange-colored carotenoids that are essential provitamin A nutrients. They are

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-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, capsanthin, and capsorubin were purchased from Fujifilm Wako Pure Chemical (Osaka, Japan). These standard samples and the extracted compounds were analyzed by HPLC under the same conditions as described previously, and

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+ H] + ions but they also produced ions due to loss of H 2 O, i.e., [M + H − H 2 O] + . Xanthophyll esters of capsorubin and capsanthin were identified based on their HPLC-MS detection, their expected [M + H] + ions with 450-nm peaks in the retention

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. HPLC allowed for the comparison of the carotenoid pigments lutein, capsanthin, and zeaxanthin among the four tissue categories. Lutein concentration was observed to follow general trend 2. Its concentration in symptomatic tissue (iv) was significantly

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compositions ( Guzmán et al., 2010 ; Hornero-Méndez et al., 2000 ; Howard et al., 2000 ; Rodriguez-Uribe et al., 2012 ; Wahyuni et al., 2011 ; Wall et al., 2001 ). In addition to their nutritional value, the red pigments (capsanthin and capsorubin) are

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Fallik, 2011 ). The main determinants of pepper fruit color are chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins ( Aza-González et al., 2011 ), whereas the main determinants of the typical red color of mature fruit are the carotenoids capsanthin and capsorubin

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. There are a number of genes that influence the accumulation of over 30 different carotenoids in mature fruit ( Matus et al., 1991 ). Capsanthin and capsorubin are the major pigments in red fruit; whereas violaxanthin and β-carotene are the major pigments

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a color aid in food products such as cheese, sausage, snacks, salad dressing, and confectionary products ( Nieto-Sandoval et al., 1999 ). It is composed of capsorubin and capsanthin, the main coloring compounds, and capsaicin, the main flavoring

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