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Ursula K. Schuch, Jack J. Kelly, and Trent Teegerstrom

mats as long as the mat is on a level surface. Capillary mats can provide automated irrigation to different size plants, help with water conservation, and free retail nursery personnel from hand watering. Disadvantages of capillary mats include the

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Jeff Million, Tom Yeager, and Claudia Larsen

rate driven directly by the plant's need, i.e., ET. Constant supply irrigation systems such as capillary mat and capillary wick (WCK) irrigation have the potential to optimize plant growth and crop uniformity while maximizing irrigation efficiency

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Takafumi Kinoshita and Masaharu Masuda

water distribution in potted ornamental plants, capillary wick irrigation, a subirrigation method, has become popular in Japan since the 1980s. Capillary-wick irrigation eliminates the need for irrigation equipment (e.g., pumps, timers, sensors) because

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Geoffrey Matthew Weaver, Marc W. van Iersel, and Roberto Testezlaf

to conserve nutrients and prevent losses ( Lea-Cox and Ross, 2001 ; Majsztrik et al., 2011 ). Subirrigation is an irrigation technique that provides water or fertilizer solution to the bottom of containers. Capillary action of the substrate provides

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Tim R. Pannkuk, Richard H. White, Kurt Steinke, Jacqueline A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, David R. Chalmers, and James C. Thomas

will be insufficient by the year 2050 in Texas ( TWDB, 2003 ). Currently, 7.8 billion gallons, or ≈30% of all potable water, is used outdoors ( U.S. Geologic Survey, 2006 ) primarily for landscape irrigation ( Kjelgren et al., 2000 ; Vickers, 2001

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Kevin J. McInnes and James C. Thomas

significant differences (α = 0.05) in water storage in the uppermost segment of the slope (3 to 3.5 m) 24 h after irrigation between the greens constructed with the following designs: USGA, AirField Systems, and AirField Systems with capillary barriers and

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Takafumi Kinoshita and Masaharu Masuda

greatly reduces water leaching ( Goodwin et al., 2003 ; Incrocci et al., 2006 ; Santamaria et al., 2003 ). For uniform water distribution in potted ornamental plants, capillary wick irrigation, a subirrigation method, has become popular in Japan since

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Michele Krucker, Rita L. Hummel, and Craig Cogger

their efficacy as substrates for subirrigated crops. This project compares a range of locally available peat substitutes for greenhouse production of chrysanthemum fertilized at two N rates using conventional overhead irrigation and a capillary mat

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James B. Calkins, Bert T. Swanson, Daniel G. Krueger, and Karin R. Lundquist

A study was designed to ascertain the efficacy, water use efficiency, runoff potential, and cost effectiveness of four container irrigation systems: overhead sprinkler irrigation, in-line trickle irrigation, capillary mat with leaky hose, and sub-irrigation. Results were species dependent. Plant growth was best under capillary mat and trickle irrigation treatments, however, differences in plant growth and performance between irrigation treatments were minimal. Differences in water use, however, were quite significant. Overhead irrigation was inefficient regarding water use while capillary mat and trickle systems used much lower volumes of water. Conservative irrigation systems which maintain acceptable plant growth using less water and reduce runoff from container production areas can clearly benefit growers by reducing production and environmental costs.

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George C. Elliott

Water retention was measured in soilless potting media irrigated by capillary mat, flood and drain, drip or overhead sprinkler. Media were amended with wetting agent or hydrophilic polymeric gel. Pots 12 cm high with a volume of 465 cm3 were loose-filled to the top with media. Potted media were wetted overhead with 120 ml water, then pots were randomly assigned to irrigation treatments. Capillary mat irrigation was continuous; other irrigation treatments were applied daily. Water retention was measured by weighing. Irrigation was continued until no further retention was measured. Water retention was significantly affected by irrigation method and medium amendments. Irrigation method followed the order overhead >= drip > flood and drain >= mat. Hydrophilic gel increased water retention, but in contrast to previous results, wetting agent did not, nor was any interaction of gel and wetting agent observed. Retention of water at container capacity, measured in situ at the end of each experiment, was significantly larger than actual retention.