Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 21 items for :

  • cannabidiol x
Clear All

reduced nutrient availability ( Caplan et al., 2017 ) can increase THC content of medical marijuana. However, little is known about the effects of weed competition on hemp grown for cannabidiol. Hemp grown for cannabinoids and terpenes is often grown in

Open Access

LeBlanc, 1995 ). Fig. 1. Photograph of (A) an all-female inflorescence, (B) an inflorescence with about equivalent male and female flowers, and (C) an all-male inflorescence from female cannabidiol (CBD) hemp strain C plants. Results Between 14 and 21 d

Free access

$623 million in 2021 (USDA 2022). Hemp plants grown for the floral market are often intended for extraction of cannabidiol (CBD) or cannabigerol (CBG), nonintoxicating cannabinoids used for therapeutic purposes ( Morales et al. 2017 ). Most licensed

Open Access

tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration of dry weight in any part of the plant ( US House of Representatives 2018 ). Hemp contains more than 100 cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), THC, and cannabigerol, that vary in concentration. Many cannabinoids are

Open Access

%, and the cannabidiol (CBD) content increased by 9% ( Parsons et al. 2019 ). In previous cannabis polyploidization experiments, both colchicine and oryzalin ( Habibi et al. 2022 ) have been used to induce polyploidy, but the problem is that there is not

Open Access

Genetically female seed is sought for cannabidiol (CBD) hemp production because CBD is extracted from the flowers of female hemp plants. The production of all female seed requires masculinization of female plants to produce genetically female pollen that reliably generates female seed. Of the five female hemp genotypes that we masculinized using foliar sprays of silver thiosulfate (Abacus, Cherry Wine, Mountain Mango, Youngsim10, Wife), all genotypes produced fewer large and more irregular or misshapen pollen grains than genetically male plants. The masculinized female genotypes Wife and Cherry Wine produced pollen with germination rates similar to those of the male genotype Kentucky Sunshine. Female hemp genotypes vary in their ability to produce usable pollen that disperses well, is easily collected, and germinates as well as pollen from genetically male hemp plants.

Open Access

Controlled application of drought can increase secondary metabolite concentrations in some essential oil-producing crops. To evaluate the effects of drought on cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) inflorescence dry weight and cannabinoid content, drought stress was applied to container-grown cannabis plants through gradual growing substrate drying under controlled environment. Fertigation was withheld during week 7 in the flowering stage until midday plant water potential (WP) was approximately −1.5 MPa (drought stress threshold). This occurred after 11 days without fertigation. A well-irrigated control was used for comparison. Leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), plant WP, wilting (leaf angle), and volumetric moisture content (VMC) were monitored throughout the drying period until the day after the drought group was fertigated. At the drought stress threshold, Pn was 42% lower and plant WP was 50% lower in the drought group than the control. Upon harvest, drought-stressed plants had increased concentrations of major cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) by 12% and 13%, respectively, compared with the control. Further, yield per unit growing area of THCA was 43% higher than the control, CBDA yield was 47% higher, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) yield was 50% higher, and cannabidiol (CBD) yield was 67% higher. Controlled drought stress may therefore be an effective horticultural management technique to maximize both inflorescence dry weight and cannabinoid yield in cannabis, although results may differ by cannabis cultivar or chemotype.

Free access

Feminized hemp seed producers often use selfing to maintain a strain name; however, selfing may lead to inferior plants for cannabidiol (CBD) production. Using three different hemp strains as parents [Candida (CD-1), Dinamed CBD, and Abacus], two outcrosses [Candida (CD-1) × Abacus and Dinamed CBD × Candida (CD-1)] and one self-cross [Candida (CD-1) × Candida (CD-1)] were conducted to produce feminized seed. Progeny from the self-cross were significantly smaller and had less yield than outcrossed progeny. Selfed progeny were variegated and highly variable for total dry weight and floral dry weight. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) separated the three progeny populations and showed that outcrossed populations clustered closer to the maternal parent, possibly the result of a maternal effect. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that most variation (74.5%) was within populations, because the progeny from all three populations are half-siblings of each other. The selfed progeny population had lower expected heterozygosity (He = 0.085) than each of the outcrossed progeny populations (He ≈ 0.10). These results suggest that selfed progeny may demonstrate inbreeding depression resulting from enhanced expression of homozygous recessive traits. It may be beneficial for feminized seed producers to use outcrossing instead of selfing to generate feminized seed for CBD production.

Open Access

To maximize yield, cannabidiol (CBD) hemp producers prefer female plants, and this is accomplished by using expensive feminized seed, vegetatively propagated female clones, or by removing male plants from dioecious seed lots. Hemp pollen drifts long distances on wind, and pollination of females reduces CBD content. Induction of triploidy is a common strategy used by plant breeders to produce sterile cultivars of agricultural crops. Triploid (3n) hemp, with three sets of chromosomes, was developed by crossing naturally diploid (2n) hemp with tetraploid (4n) hemp. Tetraploid plants used to create triploids were produced using pregerminated seeds and the mitotic spindle inhibitor colchicine. Seedlings from seeds of ‘Abacas’ × [(‘Otto2’ × ‘BaOx’) × (‘BaOx’ × ‘Colorado Cherry’)] treated with 0.05% colchicine or 0.02% colchicine for 12 hours and longer were significantly shorter than controls and ≤1 cm tall at 10 days after sowing. Surviving seedlings exhibited thickened cotyledons and hypocotyls, which indicated a potential change in ploidy. Tetraploid induction ranged from 26% to 64% for pregerminated seeds of five different hemp cultivars (Abacus × Wife, Cherry Wine, Mountain Mango, Wife, and Youngsim10) treated with 0.05% colchicine for 12 hours. Tetraploids had nearly twice the DNA content as diploids according to flow cytometric analysis. Tetraploid ‘Wife’ had larger stomates and reduced stomatal density compared with diploid ‘Wife’. Four triploid ‘Wife’ genotypes produced from crossing tetraploid ‘Wife’ with diploid ‘Wife’ were acclimated to greenhouse conditions after embryo rescue. DNA content and stomate size of triploid ‘Wife’ was intermediate between the parents. This is the first report of triploid plants of hemp. Future research will evaluate the sterility of triploid hemp.

Open Access

. Berry, E.M. 2011 Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice Brit. J. Pharmacol. 162 7 481 490 Billakota, S. Devinsky, O. Marsh, E. 2019 Cannabinoid therapy in epilepsy Curr

Open Access