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The DNA extracted from cambium tissues of grape (Vitis spp., Muscadinia rotundifolia Small) rootstocks was found to be suitable for molecular analysis. Its quality was equivalent to that of DNA extracted from leaf tissues, although the yield was higher from leaves. The use of cambium tissue allows DNA extractions during dormancy or from grafted rootstocks where leaves are not available. The DNA extracted was suitable for restriction enzyme digestion and for analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats.

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of the newly formed cambium causes an invagination of the cambial zone, a differentiation of parenchymatous tissue in the place of xylem ( Deloire and Hébant, 1983 ; Gur et al., 1968 ), and a lack of lignification of cells interlocked at the graft

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Swanson, 1990 ). The objectives of this study were 1) to compare cold hardiness of the cambium, phloem, xylem, and pith for woody species by TTC staining and TTCLT 50 ; and 2) to compare cold hardiness estimations of woody species by ELLT 50 and TTCLT 50

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to −16 °C ( Buchanan et al. 1976 ; Szalay et al. 2010 ). Differing hardiness among shoot xylem, cambium, and phloem is not commonly considered, but rates of acclimation can vary among these tissues. Arora et al. (1992) found that the bark in peach

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assessing injury in different tissues, but the level of browning that leads to mortality may differ between the xylem, cambium, and phloem. Acclimation begins in distal parts of the tree and progresses toward the base, so the trunk is the last part of the

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Abstract

These studies on the effect of climatic environment on cambium temperatures are indicative of why so much cold injury occurs in the Southeast. High cambium temperatures occurring in late winter as the result of solar radiation impinging on the bark of the trunk caused a loss of hardiness after the rest period had been broken. When these high daytime temperatures were followed by a rapid rate of fall to freezing temperatures at night, severe injury often resulted, which contributed greatly to shortening the life of peach trees. In addition, wind produced local cooling of the cambium tissue and, at critical air temperatures in late winter and early spring, was capable of causing severe cold damage. Trunk insulators modified the microclimate around the tree to the extent of preventing the extremes that made the trees less hardy and more subject to low temperature injury. Trunk cambium temperature appeared to be a sensitive indicator of tree vitality during growth. Trees with low vitality had higher cambium temperature than trees in good condition.

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. Tissue browning was visually rated using a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 indicated no browning and 10 indicated 100% of the xylem tissue area in cross section, cut just before observing, was discolored. To assess browning of phloem and cambium, shoots were

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Abstract

Fall-pruned peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) growing in either a fumigated or nonfumigated soil initiated vascular cambium growth earlier in the spring than winter-pruned trees growing in fumigated soil. Early resumption of growth is initiated by certain cultural practices which predispose trees to the cold injury death seen in peach tree short life.

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Swingle citrumelo rootstock. ( A ) Close up of phloem tissue from control Huanglongbing (HLB)-free roots. ( B ) Close up of phloem tissue of HLB-infected roots. X = xylem; P = phloem; Co = cortex; Ca = cambium; SE = sieve element; CC = companion cell. Fig

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Abstract

‘Early Amber’ peach and ‘Sungold’ nectarine (Prunus pérsica (L.) Batsch) growing in north central Florida acclimated sufficiently to cold to withstand −14° to −15°C although day temperatures were above 20° and night temperatures were above 7°. Rest and acclimation to cold in short chilling cultivars occur at higher temperatures than in long chilling ones. However, Florida cultivars also become acclimated to a lesser degree. Wood chips taken from the trunks of ‘Early Amber’ trees in January survived −10°C but were killed at −13°. Young trees were killed at −11° but survived −10° in January. Subsequent death of tissue occurs as a result of low temperature stress.

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