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per rinse, then in 50% (v/v) commercial bleach for 15 min, and rinsed five or six times (5 min per rinse) with sterile distilled water. The pericarp and testa of the seeds were removed, and the immature embryos were excised as explants for callus

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Callus initiation and growth and plantlet regeneration were studied using eight cultivars of Raphanus sativus L., including six Japanese radishes, one Chinese and one small `Comet' radish. The basal medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog inorganic salts, 2.0 mg myo-inositol/liter, 0.5 mg each of nicotinic acid and pyridoxine·HCl/liter, and 0.1 mg thiamine·HCl/liter, 30 g sucrose and 2 g Gelrite/liter. High callus yields were obtained on basal medium containing (mg·liter-1) 0.1 2,4-D and 1.0 BA for two Japanese radishes and 0.1 NAA and 1.0 kinetin for `Comet' radish. Shoots were regenerated from callus by subculturing on basal medium containing 0.1 or 1.0 mg BA/liter and then transferring to basal medium. Rooting occurred on basal medium. Although callus was obtained in all eight cultivars, shoots and plantlets were regenerated only from `Moriguchi', `Nerima Shirinaga', and `Comet'. Chemical names used: 2-(l-naphthyl) acetic acid (NAA); N-(phenylmethyl)-lH-purine-6-amine (BA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D); 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin).

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., 1990 ; Lazar et al., 1988 ). For example, Kendall et al. (1990) showed that plants of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) regenerated from callus and subsequently exposed to below-freezing temperature exhibited significant improvement in cold

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callus grafting ( Lagerstedt, 1981 ), which heats the graft union while keeping the rootstock and scion cool, can significantly increase graft success of woody plants ( Avanzato and Tamponi, 1987 ; Lagerstedt, 1984 ). Our objective was to use a hot

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eggplant, potato, and tomato. However, compared with plants of the same genus, the callus differentiation frequency (%) of S. torvum is still relatively low, and there is no stable plant regeneration system for the genetic transformation of S. torvum

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before pH adjustment and sterilization. All cultures were placed at 24 ± 1 °C under a 14-h photoperiod with 40 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 photosynthetic photon density quipped with cool-white fluorescent lamps (Philips 40 W tubes). Callus induction and propagation

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. Scientists have tried to induce flower buds from callus or explants directly, as reported in Nicotianatabacum , Dracaena fragrans cv. Massangeana ( Li and Chang, 1999 ), Citrus reticulata cv. Kinnow ( Singh et al., 2006 ), and Triticum sativum ( Lu

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Abstract

A nondestructive technique for determining callus weight is based on estimation of callus diameter.

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found that donor plant genotypes and induction media, differing in PGRs, affected both ELS and callus formation. The addition of TDZ and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) into the induction medium resulted in the highest percentage of ELS formation ( Tantasawat

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., 2001 ) as a result of the complexity and number of initial/stem cells in the apical meristem and the potential for each cell to be affected differently. In vitro treatment of organogenic callus can result in fewer chimeric mutations because plants are

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