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start of cultivation in a closed system with artificial lighting. Butterhead lettuces were grown in nutrient solutions with various EC and with differing amounts of nitrate at the start of cultivation, and the efficacy of QNM was compared with that of

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morphological type until the 1990s, but then the popularity of romaine lettuce in the market changed this situation ( Hayes 2018a ). Currently, head lettuce (including iceberg and butterhead types) account for 39% of the total area planted; romaine lettuce alone

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lettuce cultivars advertised as heat tolerant were selected, two butterhead cultivars, Anuenue (Wild Garden Seed, Philomath, OR, USA) and Mikola RG10 (Brad Tonnessen, Las Cruces, NM, USA); two green leaf-type cultivars, Muir (Johnny’s Selected Seeds

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and Takakura, 1988 ; Oda et al., 1989 ). However, rapid plant growth under favorable environmental conditions leads to decreased calcium concentrations in leaves. In plant factories, butterhead lettuce ( Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.) is

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Six butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars-`Sorbon' (L2130), `Donatan' (L2694), `Jessy', `Aramir', `Florian', and `Suzan'-were grown in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Following harvest and yield assessment, individual heads from each cultivar were selected randomly for subjective sensory evaluation. Among the quality attributes evaluated were color, appearance, head firmness, texture, flavor, and freedom from defects. Attributes were highly correlated with overall quality for each cultivar. `Florian' attributes were ranked high by members of an evaluation panel. In addition, `Florian' plants were among the highest yielding cultivars. `Florian' is recommended for its yield and quality features.

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pumps on the ion concentrations in nutrient solutions and growth of butterhead lettuce were examined. The effect of a ultraviolet sterilization system on the ions in the solution was also investigated. Materials and methods Nutrient solution circulation

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investigation to assess whether a correlation occurred between this reading and Ca concentration in lettuce. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Eighteen lettuce cultivars of heritage and modern genetics with butterhead, romaine, and loose-leaf phenotypes

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