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Mary Lewis, Matthew Chappell, Donglin Zhang, and Rebekah Maynard

been noted to improve germination rates ( Lakshmi et al., 2010 ; Stephenson and Fahey, 2004 ). Butterfly weed ( Asclepias tuberosa ) is one of 106 species that are indigenous to North America ( Stevens, 1945 ; Woodson, 1954 ). Although milkweed

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Mary Lewis, Matthew Chappell, Paul A. Thomas, Rebekah C. Maynard, and Ockert Greyvenstein

-pollination evidence Intl. J. Plant Sci. 165 1027 1037 doi: Lewis, M.E. Chappell, M. Zhang, D. Maynard, R. 2020 Development of an embryo rescue protocol for butterfly weed HortTechnology 30 31 37 doi:

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Alan W. McKeown, John W. Potter, Mary Gartshore, and Peter Carson

Root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb) are well-adapted to sandy soils and have a host range including most agronomic, horticultural, and wild species grown in Ontario. As native climax sand-prairie species have coexisted with the nematode for millennia, resistance or tolerance may have developed. We have screened using the Baermann pan technique, soil samples taken from a private collection of sand-prairie species collected from local prairie remnants. Several species [Liatris cylindracea Michx., Monarda punctata L., Pycnanthemum virginianum L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench] proved to be excellent hosts (>500/kg of soil) of root lesion nematode, confirming the presence of this nematode in the soil. Over two seasons, we determined that 10 plant species belonging to the families Asclepiadaceae, Compositae, Graminae, and Leguminosae to support very low numbers of P. penetrans. Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.) had no root lesion nematodes throughout both seasons, Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.) very low counts, while Switch grass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] had detectable root lesion nematodes on only one sampling date each year. Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), Little Bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx) Nash], Sand Dropseed [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray], Side-oats Grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.)) Torr], Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.), Bush clover [Lespedeza capitata (Michx] also are poor hosts. These species have potential as cover or rotation crops useful for nematode management.

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A.W. McKeown, J.W. Potter, M. Gartshore, and P. Carson

Because of the need to find plants that suppress root lesion nematodes for use in rotation or cover-crops, 16 native sand-prairie species were evaluated for host status for 6 years. Plants were grown on a Fox sand soil at a local prairie plant nursery. Soil cores were taken in the spring, summer, and fall and assayed for plant parasitic nematodes. Five species supported very low numbers (less than 100/kg soil) of root lesion nematodes. Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) had no detectable nematodes for the duration. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L., Nash) samples produced detectable nematodes on only two sampling dates over the 6 years and were statistically not different from brown-eyed Susan. Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.) also had very low detectable nematodes as did sand dropseed [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray.]. New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus L.), little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) were poor hosts with <200 nematodes/kg soil. Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum L), wild bergamont (Monarda fistulosa L), horsemint (Monarda punctata L), and dwarf blazing star (Liatris cylindracea L) all had root lesion populations over 3000/kg soil. Horsemint and wild bergamont plants died out, possibly as a result of nematode infestation. Root lesion nematodes have an extremely wide host range in current agronomic and horticultural crops, and weeds and are difficult to manage using nonchemical means. Indiangrass, switchgrass, big bluestem, and little bluestem have all been used agriculturally for pastures and consequently have potential as beneficial long-term rotation crops for nematode management and soil building.

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, William E. Klingeman, Phillip C. Flanagan, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas, Rebecca Koepke-Hill, and Mark A. Halcomb

Controlling weed contamination in nursery stock is difficult in ornamental production. Although cultural practices for weed control in nurseries include mulching and the use of fabrics to impede the development of emerging weeds, these techniques

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Bert M. Cregg and Robert Schutzki

). In addition to the mulches, we included two treatments without mulch, no mulch + no weed control and no mulch + weed control, to separate the effect of weed control from the overall mulch effect. Specific objectives of the project were to determine

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Gina M. Angelella, Laura Stange, Holly L. Scoggins, and Megan E. O’Rourke

compete well with annual weed species once they are established ( Lulow, 2006 ) and that they do not require frequent overseeding ( Aldrich, 2002 ). Moreover, some research suggests bumblebees and butterflies prefer perennials over annuals ( Feber and

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Nikki Hanson, Amy L. Ross-Davis, and Anthony S. Davis

.C. 1994 Biology and control of common milkweed Rev. Weed Sci. 6 227 250 Brower, L.P. 1995 Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America: 1857–1995 J. Lepidopterists’. Soc. 49 265 276 Brower, L

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Scott E. Renfro, Brent M. Burkett, Bruce L. Dunn, and Jon T. Lindstrom

To address issues of invasiveness with some Buddleja L. species, a triploid Buddleja was released. Buddleja (Scrophulariaceae Juss., formally Buddlejaceae K. Wilhelm and Loganiaceae R. Brown), commonly called butterfly bush, is a recent

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Bethany A. Harris, S. Kristine Braman, and Svoboda V. Pennisi

insect and weed pests ( Pimentel, 2002 ). Moreover, countless other insect species act as pest population regulators but often go unnoticed. Insects also are a crucial part of food security in the United States, with 87 of the leading 115 food crops