Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34 items for :

  • burial depth x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Chunyang Zhang, Jiefang Wu, Danwen Fu, Limin Wang, Jiezhen Chen, Changhe Cai, and Liangxi Ou

appropriate soaking time for seed germination in litchi. Furthermore, we examined the effects of short-term high temperatures on germination of litchi seeds. Finally, the influence of seed orientation and burial depth on litchi seedling recruitment was studied

Full access

Laura K. Hunsberger, Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Hilary A. Sandler, and Wesley R. Autio

Uniformity of sand deposition on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) farms was examined to evaluate the potential use of two sanding methods to suppress swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii) seedling emergence by seed burial. During a 2-year study, 24 farms were evaluated with sand applied by either water barge or directly on ice. To measure the depth of sand deposited on the surface, soil cores were taken every 5 m in a grid pattern on a randomly selected portion of a commercial Massachusetts cranberry farm. Both application methods delivered nonuniform depositions of sand with the majority of the samples measuring less than the target depth. Surface diagrams depicting sand depths indicated no particular patterns of error or deposition that could be advantageously adjusted by the grower at the time of application. Mean actual: target depth ratios were 63% and 66% for barge and ice sanding, respectively (100% indicating actual equaled target). In the best scenario (two farms), 47% of the sanded area received less than the target amount; 11 farms had at least 90% of actual sand depths below the target depth. For farmers targeting 25-mm sand depths (depth expected to suppress dodder germination), the mean actual: target depth ratio was 58%, indicating half of the actual sand depths measured less than 15 mm. Compaction of the sand layer due to the elapsed time period (6 weeks or more) between sand application and measurement may have contributed to the large number of samples that were lower than the target depth. Even so, the irregularity of deposition patterns and the large proportion of sand depths that were less than 25 mm indicated adequate suppression of dodder seedling emergence would be unlikely with either sanding method.

Full access

K.D. Cox, H. Scherm, and N. Serman

Consecutive replanting of peach (Prunus persica) trees on the same orchard site can result in various replant problems and diseases, including armillaria root disease (Armillaria spp.), which develops upon contact between the roots of newly planted trees and infested residual root pieces in the soil. There is little information regarding the quantity of roots remaining in stone fruit orchards following tree removal and land clearing. We investigated the utility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to characterize reflector signals from peach root fragments in a controlled burial experiment and to quantify the amount of residual roots remaining after typical commercial orchard clearing. In the former experiment, roots ranging from 2.5 to 8.2 cm in diameter and buried at depths of 11 to 114 cm produced characteristic parabolic reflector signals in radar profiles. Image analysis of high-amplitude reflector area indicated significant linear relationships between signal strength (mean pixel intensity) and root diameter (r = -0.517; P = 0.0097; n = 24) or the combined effects of root diameter and burial depth, expressed though a depth × diameter term (r = -0.630; P = 0.0010; n = 24). In a peach orchard in which trees and roots had been removed following typical commercial practice (i.e., trees were pushed over, burned, and tree rows subsoiled), a GPR survey of six 4 × 8-m plots revealed that the majority of reflector signals indicative of root fragments were located in the upper 30 to 40 cm of soil. Based on ground-truth excavation of selected sites within plots, reflectors showing a strong parabolic curvature in the radar profiles corresponded to residual root fragments with 100% accuracy, whereas those displaying a high amplitude area represented roots in 86.1% of the cases. By contrast, reflectors with both poor curvature and low amplitude yielded roots for less than 10% of the excavated sites, whereas randomly selected sites lacking reflector signals were devoid of any roots or other subsurface objects. A high level of variability in the number of residual roots was inferred from the radar profiles of the six plots, indicating an aggregated distribution of root fragments throughout the field. The data further indicated that at least one residual root fragment would be present per cubic meter of soil, and that many of these fragments have diameters corresponding to good to excellent inoculum potential for armillaria root disease. Further GPR surveys involving different levels of land clearing, combined with long-term monitoring of armillaria root disease incidence in replanted trees, will be necessary to ascertain the disease threat posed by the levels of residual root biomass observed in this study.

Free access

Jared A. Hoyle, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal

depth, crop residue, soil air permeability, soil aggregation, and seed carbohydrate reserves resulting from seed size can influence weed emergence ( Benvenuti, 2003 ; Chauhan and Johnson, 2008 ). Soil texture and seed burial depth reportedly influence

Open access

Thierry E. Besançon

.01 mm, and had limited carbohydrate reserves, with a 100 seeds weight of 0.11 g. Therefore, seedling emergence from a burial depth more than 1 cm may be limited because larger seeds are usually able to emerge from greater burial depths because of their

Open access

Debalina Saha, S. Christopher Marble, Brian J. Pearson, Héctor E. Pérez, Gregory E. MacDonald, and Dennis C. Odero

seed germination, the seed burial depth (or mulch depth) is an important factor to consider. Mulch depth was significant for all three weed species, with the 2-inch depth resulting in a 71%, 147%, and 57% increase in control compared with the 1-inch

Open access

Isha Poudel and Anthony L. Witcher

sinense ), and sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua ) applied at 1-inch depth reduced fresh weight of weed biomass by 82% to 100% 1 month after sowing. Parboiled rice ( Oryza sativa ) hulls are commercially available and are used for weed control on

Free access

Inga A. Zasada, Clyde L. Elmore, Lani E. Yakabe, and James D. MacDonald

length of colored nylon string attached to denote the intended depth of placement in the plot (5, 15, or 30 cm). Nematode. Five grams of soil infested with mixed stages of the citrus nematode ( Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb), collected from an

Free access

Thomas G. Bottoms, Timothy K. Hartz, Michael D. Cahn, and Barry F. Farrara

buried ≈10 cm deep in the soil beds on 4 Nov. (field 24) or 23 Nov. 2010 (field 25). Burial was done after transplanting to avoid any damage or disruption of the bags during transplanting. Soil temperature at the burial depth was recorded by thermistors

Free access

James E. Altland and Jennifer K. Boldt

depth of pine bark mulch. Wilen et al. (1999) showed that composted greenwaste, pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] shells, and pine ( Pinus taeda L.) bark at a depth of 2.5 cm provided excellent control of creeping woodsorrel ( Oxalis