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Cranberry is a perennial vine native to northeastern continental America ( Eck, 1990 ). Vertical stems, known as uprights, develop terminal buds that may be mixed or vegetative. Mixed buds contain flower initials that overwinter and produce fruit

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frost resistance, which also vary greatly over time. The experiments carried out in apricot and peach chiefly examined changes in the frost resistance of the flower buds, but there is information on the frost tolerance of the vegetative buds and the

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sprouts, attempts have been made to use them as mother branches in commercial orchards to make up for the yield reduction as well as to control tree vigor. For such an attempt to be successful, it is required for water sprouts to set terminal buds early

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use preformed crown buds as part of the perennating structure. For use as an ornamental plant, floral productivity of gentians is associated with the growth and development of these crown buds ( Samarakoon et al., 2010 , 2012 ), and the timely

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, a high fruit set is considered for a desirable trait in almond, although the adequate level of fruit set in any cultivar must be related to its flower bud density and to its flower quality ( Bernad and Socias i Company, 1998 ; Socias i Company et al

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The role of spur leaves in bud and fruit development on two spur-type `Delicious' apple strains (Malus domestica Borkh.) and factors affecting spur development were studied. Reducing spur leaf area on vegetative spurs in August reduced the number of spurs that flowered the following year but did not affect flower size. On spurs that did flower, leaf area reduction the previous year did not influence leaf number or area, but the bourse shoot leaf area was reduced. Spur bud diameter, leaf area, size, specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf dry weight were larger on 2-year-old vegetative spurs than on 1- or 3-year-old spurs. Within each age section of a limb, spur leaf number, area, size, SLW, and bud diameter decreased from the apical to basal positions on the limb. Flower number did not vary within a limb section, but fruit set was lower on the most apical and basal spurs compared to midshoot spurs. Fruit size was largest at the apical end of each limb section and was smallest at basal positions. These relationships were not affected by strain, tree age, or orchard location. Summer pruning at 30 days after bloom tended to increase leaf number, area, size, and spur length compared to unpruned trees or pruning later in the season but did not influence spur bud diameter.

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), frost injury or winter kill of buds and current-year shoots is a common problem. The consequences of bud freezing injuries in terms of quality and ornamental value are of horticultural importance. Flower buds of most H. macrophylla varieties are formed

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Apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit trees in the world. However, due to the infrequent formation of flower buds during its growth, apple fruit production is significantly affected; therefore, the mechanism of apple

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ensure that only new shoots and new floral buds produced after the photoperiod manipulation treatments were taken into account, new shoots that emerged before 9 June 2009 were removed at the beginning of the study. In the study of off-season production in

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Abbreviations: CR, chilling requirement; CU, chill unit; GDH, growing degree hours; H 2 , heritability; I 50 , index of bud activity; OP, open-pollinated. 1 Present address: IAPAR-lnstituto Agronômico do Paraná, P.O. Box 2301, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

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