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useful for apple trees ( He and Schupp, 2018 ; Zahid et al., 2021a ) because they can result in unwanted vegetative growth. Robotic pruning is a selective branch operation that can produce accurate cuts using an end-effector tool attached to the

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Branching is a pivotal determinant of plant architecture ( Umehara et al. 2008 ), not only influencing the capacity of the plant to adapt to its environment but also significantly impacting crop yield, ornamental characteristics, and production

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Most temperate fruit tree breeding programs pay major attention to fruit quality, chilling requirement, crop load, and tolerance to disease. In contrast, limited effort has been devoted to tree architecture and tree branching patterns ( Berthelemy

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height was (mean ± sd ) 0.45 ± 0.05 m and the trunk diameter was 0.11 ± 0.01 m. The trees had three to five main branches. The canopy height of the aboveground level was 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The height from the ground to the canopy skirt was 0.9 ± 0.2 m. The

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The Collegiate Branch Forum is an excellent means for undergraduate students to gain experience in presenting papers and to become involved in research. Students need much time and guidance at the undergraduate level. However, considering the purpose behind collegiate branch papers, I elected not to co-author their papers. This was also the case in some of the other collegiate papers in which only the student's name appears. I question whether a paper belongs in the collegiate division if several faculty names appear as co-authors. Perhaps a concensus should be made concerning the number of students allowed on a single paper and whether faculty advisors are to be co-authors. One paper given this year had seven co-authors.

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on the plant ( Bergmann et al. 2017 ). Traditionally, poinsettia have been pinched to remove apical dominance and allow the lower nodes to branch out. This results in a wider and fuller plant, but mechanical pinching is labor-intensive and may not

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Abbreviations: BD, `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond'; CR, `Eckespoint C-1 Red'; TR, free-branching plants propagated from restricted-branching `Eckespoint C-1 Red' scions after being grafted onto free-branching `Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond' stocks

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Although growth forms in peach such as dwarf, pillar, weeping, and compact have been studied ( Scorza et al., 2006 ), little effort has been devoted to the study of tree architecture and branching. The standard peach tree has vigorous acropetal

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Almond trees develop fruit laterally on extension shoots and short shoots called spurs on 2-year-old or older wood ( Kester et al., 1996 ). The pattern of shoots and spurs along branches is of major importance because they determine tree

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, cultural information for producing greenhouse-grown stevia as a transplant or potted plant is lacking. As with many herbs grown for commercial sales in pots, it is desirable to produce a full, well-branched plant that is sold during the vegetative stage of

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